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Goldstein v. United States

United States District Court, D. New Jersey

May 20, 2019





         Petitioner Moshe Goldstein (“Petitioner”) is a federal prisoner proceeding pro se with a motion to vacate, set aside, or correct his sentence pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2255. (ECF No. 1.) The Government has opposed the motion. (ECF No. 4.) Petitioner filed a reply. (ECF No. 6.) For the following reasons, Petitioner's § 2255 motion is denied with prejudice and a certificate of appealability will not issue.


         A. The Underlying Criminal Proceeding

         On October 10, 2013, Petitioner was arrested, along with seven others, pursuant to a superseding criminal complaint (the “Criminal Complaint”), which charged him with one count of conspiracy to commit kidnapping in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1201(c). United States v. Goldstein, Crim. No. 14-113, ECF No. 4 (D.N.J.). Petitioner's arrest was effectuated at a warehouse in Edison, New Jersey, during the execution of a sting operation by the Government (the “2013 Sting Operation”). Id. at 2-3. The 2013 Sting Operation related to the Government's investigation into allegations that Petitioner and the other defendants named in the Criminal Complaint, all of whom are Orthodox Jewish men, engaged in criminal means to facilitate Orthodox Jewish divorces.

         According to the Criminal Complaint, to effectuate an Orthodox Jewish divorce, a husband must provide his wife with a document known as a “get.” Id. at 4. A get serves as documentary proof of the dissolution of a marriage under Jewish law, and a divorce is not official until a get is given to the wife by the husband. Id. Codefendants in this matter, Mendel Epstein, Martin Wolmark, and Jay Goldstein, who were Orthodox Jewish rabbis, were accused of charging agunah, women whose husbands would not provide gets, large sums of money to obtain gets from their husbands by means of violence and threats of violence. Id. Petitioner was described in the Superseding Complaint as a “tough guy” who would “participate in the actual kidnapping and assault of the recalcitrant husbands to coerce them into giving the get.” Id. at 5.

         On March 10, 2014, Petitioner agreed to waive indictment and pleaded guilty, pursuant to a plea agreement with the Government, to one count of travelling in interstate commerce to commit extortion, a crime of violence, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1952(a) and 18 U.S.C. § 2. Crim. No. 14-113, ECF Nos. 125, 127. As part of the plea agreement. both the Government and Petitioner agreed to “waive certain rights to file an appeal, collateral attack, writ, or motion after sentencing, including but not limited to an appeal under 18 U.S.C. § 3742 or a motion under 28 U.S.C. § 2255.” Crim. No. 14-113, ECF No. 125, at 4. More specifically, Petitioner agreed to waive “the right to file any appeal, any collateral attack, or any other writ or motion . . . which challenges the sentence imposed by the sentencing court if that sentence falls within or below the Guidelines range that results from the agreed total Guidelines offense level of 24.” Id. at 9.

         While the charge to which Petitioner pleaded guilty related to his involvement in the 2013 Sting Operation, the Government's agreement to not initiate any further proceedings against Petitioner required that a 2011 forced get, in which he also participated, be considered as relevant conduct for the purpose of sentencing. Id. at 2.

         The 2011 forced get occurred on August 22, 2011, when six men, including Petitioner, entered the apartment of Usher Chaimowitz and his roommate, Menachem Teitelbaum, to purportedly obtain a get from Chaimowitz. The facts of the 2011 forced get were adduced at trial of certain codefendants in this matter, United States v. Epstein, Crim. No. 14-287 (D.N.J.), [1]through testimony from Teitelbaum. (See ECF No. 3-1, at 129-50; ECF No. 3-2, at 1-139.) Teitelbaum testified that on August 22, 2011, he awoke to six men in the apartment he shared with Chaimowitz “with a punch to [his] face and [his] teeth being pulled, with [his] arms and legs bound.” (ECF No. 3-1, at 147.) Chaimowitz's arms and legs were also bound. (Id. at 148.) At some point, Teitelbaum testified that he began to fight the intruders and they pushed his head into a wall and again bound his arms and legs. (Id. at 150; ECF No. 3-2, at 1.) At the same time, Teitelbaum testified that the other intruders were “beating up” Chaimowitz and “calling out to him all the time, give a get, give a divorce, to your wife.” (ECF No. 3-2, at 2-3.) Teitelbaum was eventually moved to the kitchen and the intruders remained with Chaimowitz for about an hour before leaving the apartment. (Id. at 8-9.) After the intruders left the apartment, Teitelbaum testified that he had Chaimowitz take a photo on his cell phone of Teitelbaum while his arms and legs were still bound. (Id. at 11-12.) Teitelbaum then took photos of Chaimowitz before calling the Shomrim, the Jewish community police, and the Hatzolah, the volunteer Jewish first aid department. (Id. at 13.)[2] Both Teitelbaum and Chaimowitz were taken to the hospital. (Id. at 14.) Teitelbaum alleged that four of his teeth were broken result of the incident. (Id. at 53.)

         Sentencing of the codefendants named in the Criminal Complaint-twelve in total-began in November 2015. Petitioner was the first to be sentenced and during his sentencing hearing, I made some general comments regarding the nature of the crime applicable to each defendant. (ECF No. 3-1, at 112-15.) In weighing the § 3553 factors, I made findings of fact regarding the 2011 forced get, explaining that

The 2011 incident actually involved not only threats but assaults as well. I heard the testimony of one of the victims, the roommate, Mr. Teitelbaum, of the husband, and I will say here in open court I do not credit all of his remarks which may have been embellished, but there is no dispute that both victims were restrained, tied up, and assaulted in some manner. That is not disputed.
And while the hope may have been to avoid physical harm, that incident, that episode reveals the fact that these situations can escalate, and no one knows how they will actually play out. And as a result, you all go in with the knowledge that force may be used and that the recalcitrant husband may suffer harm, and you go in prepared to deal with that.

(Id. at 115-16.) Ultimately, Petitioner was sentenced to a 48-month prison term, below the Sentencing Guidelines range of 51 to 63 months. (Id. at 95, 121.)

         B. The § 2255 Motion

          On November 17, 2016, Petitioner filed the instant motion to vacate, set aside, or correct his sentence pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2255. (ECF No. 1.) Petitioner asserts that he is entitled to relief under § 2255 based on newly discovered evidence confirming that Teitelbaum's testimony at the Epstein trial was false. (Id. at 5.) Petitioner argues that because this Court partially relied on the testimony of Teitelbaum to determine Petitioner's sentence, he must be resentenced. (Id.) Specifically, Petitioner asserts that photographs admitted at the Epstein trial of Teitelbaum tied and bound were taken days after the incident occurred and did not reflect the true “nature and extent of his purported injuries.” (Id.)

         In support of this claim, Petitioner relies upon an affidavit of Testa Shaska (the “Shaska Affidavit”), a private investigator retained on behalf of one of Petitioner's codefendants, Simcha Bulmash.[3] Shaska interviewed Detective Joe Solomon, of the New York City Police Department regarding the 2011 incident. (ECF No. 3-3, at 75.) Detective Solomon was assigned to investigate the 2011 incident. As part of his investigation, Detective Solomon inspected Teitelbaum and Chaimowitz's apartment and interviewed both regarding the incident. (Id.) The Shaska Affidavit sets forth the following details which Petitioner asserts is “newly discovered” evidence regarding the veracity of Teitelbaum's testimony:

5. Detective Solomon remembered Mr. Teitelbaum's appearance on August 22, 2011 and recalled that Mr. Teitelbaum's face was not “mangled” and he did not appear to be missing any teeth.
6. Detective Solomon told me that there are no photographs in the NYPD case file related to this incident. Detective Solomon also informed me that, during the first interview of Mr. Teitelbaum on August 22, 2011, he did not present Detective Solomon with any photographs or state that any photographs existed related to the incident.
7. One of two days after the incident, according to Detective Solomon, Mr. Teitelbaum arrived at the precinct and showed him pictures which Mr. Teitelbaum represented were “recreations” of the crime scene. Detective Solomon told me that he informed Mr. Teitelbaum that he could not include those photographs in the case file because they were not actual crime scene photographs.

(Id. at 76.) Shaska showed Detective Solomon the photos that were admitted at trial of Teitelbaum and he “confirmed that these photos were the ones that Mr. Teitelbaum showed him . . . and represented to be ‘recreations' of the event.” (Id.)

         In its Answer, the Government argues that not only is this evidence not “newly discovered” as this issue came out during the cross-examination of Teitelbaum at trial, even if it were, it would not entitle Goldstein to a new sentence. (ECF No. 4, at 17-24.) The Government also requests that this Court enforce the waiver of appeal and collateral attack rights set forth in Petitioner's plea agreement. (Id. at 25-33.)


         To grant relief on a federal prisoner's motion to vacate, set aside or correct a sentence under 28 U.S.C. § 2255, the Court must find that “there has been such a denial or infringement of the constitutional rights of the prisoner as to render judgment vulnerable to collateral attack.” 28 U.S.C. § 2255(b). “Section 2255 permits relief for an error of law or fact only where the error constitutes a ‘fundamental defect which inherently results in a complete miscarriage of justice.'” United States v. Eakman, 378 F.3d 294, 298 (3d Cir. 2004) (quoting United States v. Addonizio, 445 U.S. 178, 185 (1979)). Accordingly, a petitioner who attacks his sentence “based on some error in the sentencing proceeding [must] allege (1) that the district court received ‘misinformation of a constitutional magnitude' and (2) that the district judge relied at least in part on that misinformation.'” Id. (citing United States v. Spiropoulos, 976 F.2d 155, 163 (3d Cir. 1972)).

         “In considering a motion to vacate a defendant's sentence, ‘the court must accept the truth of the movant's factual allegations unless they are clearly frivolous based on the existing record.'” United States v. Booth, 432 F.3d 542. 545 (3d Cir. 2005) (quoting Gov't of V.I. v. Forte, 865 F.2d 59, 62 (3d Cir. 1989)). A district court “is required to hold an evidentiary hearing ‘unless the motion and files and records of the case show conclusively that the movant is not entitled to relief.'” Id. (quoting Forte, 865 F.2d at 62.)


         The Government argues that Petitioner is not entitled to relief under § 2255 because he waived his right to bring a collateral attack motion by entering into the plea agreement. Petitioner asserts that the waiver provision in his plea agreement is not enforceable (1) because it was not made knowingly and voluntarily as Petitioner did not know the extent to which Teitelbaum's testimony was embellished, and (2) because enforcement of the waiver would work a miscarriage of justice.

         The Third Circuit has held that “[c]riminal defendants may waive both constitutional and statutory rights, provided they do so voluntarily and with knowledge of the nature and consequences of the waiver.” United States v. Mabry, 536 F.3d 231, 236 (3d Cir. 2008), abrogated in part on other grounds, Garza v. Idaho, 139 S.Ct. 738 (2019). This includes the defendant's right to file an appeal or a collateral attack motion under 28 U.S.C. § 2255. United States v. Fazio, 795 F.3d 421, 425 (3d Cir. 2015).

         A defendant's waiver of his right to file an appeal or collateral attack motion is enforceable so long as it was “entered into knowingly and voluntarily and [its] enforcement does not work a miscarriage of justice.” Mabry, 536 F.3d at 237. While “a defendant bears the burden of presenting an argument that would render his waiver unknowing or involuntary, a court has an affirmative duty both to examine the knowing and voluntary nature of the waiver and to assure itself that its enforcement works no miscarriage of justice, based on the record before it.” Id. at 238.

         A. Knowing and ...

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