The opinion of the court was delivered by: Hon. Dennis M. Cavanaugh
DENNIS M. CAVANAUGH, U.S.D.J.:
This matter comes before the Court by request of Abbott Laboratories and Fournier Ireland Ltd. ("Plaintiffs") and Impax Laboratories, Inc. et al ("Defendants") for a claim construction hearing, pursuant to Local Patent Rule 4.5. The parties sought the Court's interpretation of disputed terms in U.S. Patent No. 7, 259, 186 ("the '186 patent"). A Markman hearing was held on May 24, 2011 at which both parties ably presented sophisticated and intelligent arguments. Having considered the parties' written and oral arguments, the Court has set forth its construction of the disputed terms.
A Markman hearing was held to aid the Court in construction of disputed terms in U.S. Patent No. 7, 259, 186 ("the '186 patent"). The '186 patent concerns salts of the drug fenofibric acid, as well as pharmaceutical formulations thereof. This patent is used by Plaintiff to produce and market a prescription drug product, Trilipix, which is used for treating cholesterol and triglyceride problems in adults. Defendants each filed Abbreviated New Drug Application forms ("ANDA") with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration seeking to market generic versions of Trilipix. Plaintiff contends that the products described in the ANDA's would infringe the '186 patent, which is not set to expire until 2025.
Claim construction is a matter of law to be determined solely by the court. Phillips v. AWH Corp., 415 F.3d 1303, 1312 (Fed. Cir. 2005), cert. denied, 546 U.S. 1170 (2006). Analysis of a patent infringement claim is a two-step process. Tate Access Floors, Inc. v. Interface Architectural Resources, Inc., 279 F.3d 1357, 1365 (Fed. Cir. 2002). A court must first construe the meaning and scope of the patent claims, Markman v. Westview Instruments, Inc., 52 F.3d 967, 978 (Fed. Cir. 1995) (en banc), aff'd, 517 U.S. 370 (1996), and then compare the claims as construed to the alleged infringing product. Tate, 279 F.3d at 1365. At this stage, the Court will only engage in the first step.
To construe the terms of a patent, a court should look first to the language of the claim itself. Vitronics Corp. v. Conceptronic, Inc., 90 F.3d 1576, 1582 (Fed. Cir. 1996). Terms within a claim "are generally given their ordinary and customary meaning." Id. "[T]he ordinary and customary meaning of a claim term is the meaning that the term would have to a person of ordinary skill in the art in question at the time of the invention, i.e., as of the effective filing date of the patent application." Phillips, 415 F.3d at 1313.
To determine how a person of skill in the art would understand a patent's claim language, a court must first examine the intrinsic record--the patent itself, including the claims, the specification and the prosecution history. Vitronics, 90 F.3d at 1582 (citing Markman, 52 F.3d at 979). The specification "acts as a dictionary when it expressly defines terms used in the claims or when it defines terms by implication." Id. Indeed, the Federal Circuit has explained that the specification is "usually . . . dispositive . . .[and is the] best guide to the meaning of a disputed term." Phillips, 415 F.3d at 1315 (quoting Vitronics, 90 F.3d at 1582)(internal quotations omitted). It is proper for a court to "rely heavily on the written description for guidance as to the meaning of the claims." Id. at 1317.
A patent's prosecution history is also a critical source of guidance, as it "provides evidence of how the PTO and the inventor understood the patent." Id. The prosecution history is the complete record of the proceedings before the PTO, and "can often inform the meaning of the claim language by demonstrating how the inventor understood the invention and whether the inventor limited the invention in the course of prosecution, making the claim scope narrower than it would otherwise be." Id. The Federal Circuit has repeatedly emphasized the need to consult the prosecution history to "exclude any interpretation that was disclaimed during prosecution." See Rhodia Chimie v. PPG Indus., 402 F.3d 1371, 1384 (Fed. Cir. 2005) (recognizing that, in exchanges with the PTO, a patent applicant may disavow or disclaim certain claim coverage, thereby precluding any claim interpretation that would encompass the disavowed or disclaimed subject matter).
After consulting intrinsic evidence, a district court may also examine extrinsic evidence-i.e., "all evidence external to the patent and prosecution history." Markman, 52 F.3d at 980; Phillips, 415 F.3d at 1317-18 (stating that the Federal Circuit "ha[s] authorized district courts to rely on extrinsic evidence"). Such evidence consists of testimony by the inventor or by experts, dictionaries, and treatises. Markman, 52 F.3d at 980. However, extrinsic evidence is generally "less significant than the intrinsic record in determining the legally operative meaning of claim language." C.R. Bard, Inc. v. U.S. Surgical Corp., 388 F.3d 858, 862 (Fed. Cir. 2004) (quotations omitted). Extrinsic evidence, when relied upon, must be considered in view of the specification and prosecution history. Phillips, 415 ...