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Advanced Oral Technologies v. Opinion

January 3, 2011


The opinion of the court was delivered by: Debevoise, Senior District Judge


Plaintiff, Advanced Oral Technologies, L.L.C. ("AOT"), instituted this Lanham Act claim against Defendant, Nutrex Research, Inc. ("Nutrex"), and others, seeking to enjoin the sale of a bodybuilding supplement which incorrectly lists one of Plaintiff's patented substances among the ingredients listed on the supplement's product label. Presently before the court is Plaintiff's Motion for a Preliminary Injunction. For the reasons set forth below, Plaintiff's Motion will be denied.


Plaintiff is the exclusive licensee and sole manufacturer of a patented molecule known as 2nitrooxy ethyl2amino 3methylbutanoate (the "Molecule"), which is used in a bodybuilding supplement called eNoxide. Nutrex is the manufacturer of a different bodybuilding supplement known as "Hemo Rage Black" (sometimes referred to herein as the "Product"), which is essentially a cocktail of various supplements. Nutrex sells Hemo Rage Black through numerous retailers, including Defendants, Inc., Vitamin Shoppe, Inc., Europa Sports Products, Inc. ("Europa"), and General Nutrition Centers, Inc. ("GNC").

When Hemo Rage Black was first introduced in August of 2009 the Product label listed 56 different ingredients, including the Molecule. The ingredients were listed on the back of the bottle in size 6.5 font. Defendants admit that Hemo Rage Black does not, and never did, actually contain the Molecule. Rather, the Product label incorrectly listed the Molecule among the ingredients.

Nutrex asserts that it originally intended to license the Molecule from Plaintiff and to include it in the Product. For one reason or another, the Molecule was not part of the final formulation, but the labels listed it among the ingredients because the labels were designed and produced at a time when Nutrex thought the Molecule would be included in the Product. Thus, according to Nutrex, the inaccurate labels resulted from an inadvertent failure to correct the labels after it determined the Molecule would not be part of the final formulation.

Plaintiff discovered the inaccurate labels soon after Hemo Rage Black was introduced. It initially thought Nutrex was violating its patent for the Molecule but soon discovered that the Molecule was not actually included in the Product. In September of 2009 Plaintiff contacted Nutrex and demanded that it stop distributing the Product with the erroneous labels.

Thereafter, the parties attempted to negotiate a license agreement whereby Nutrex would have paid a fee for use of the Molecule and the Molecule would have been included in the Product. According to Nutrex, Plaintiff sought to receive a fee of four to five dollars per bottle of Hemo Rage Black, an amount Nutrex thought to be unreasonable. Negotiations broke down by the end of March, 2010.

On April 1, 2010 Nutrex removed the reference to the Molecule from its website and other advertising, and had new labels printed for all future manufacturing runs. To correct the faulty labels on existing inventory held in its warehouse, Nutrex crossed out the reference to the Molecule with a black marker. Co-Defendants Vitamin Shoppe, GNC, Europa, and (the "Co-Defendants") also removed all references to the Molecule in their advertising materials. It is unclear whether the Co-Defendants attempted to cross out the reference to the Molecule on the mislabeled bottles they held in inventory.

Plaintiff asserts that it was informed by Nutrex in April of 2010 that all references to the Molecule had been removed from the Product. However, despite Defendants' efforts to correct the faulty references to the Molecule, and despite Nutrex's assertion to Plaintiff, there are still mislabeled bottles in the stream of commerce. In September of 2010 Plaintiff discovered that mislabeled bottles of Hemo Rage Black could be purchased from each of the Co-Defendants.

Plaintiff's principal, Michael Farber, purchased a mislabeled bottle of Hemo Rage Black on September 23, 2010 from a GNC store located in the Willowbrook Mall. On September 24, 2010 Mr. Farber purchased a bottle of the Product from a Vitamin Shoppe store in Clifton, New Jersey on which the reference to the Molecule was only partially stricken. However, on November 23, 2010 Mr. Farber purchased a bottle from the same store in Clifton on which the reference to the Molecule was blacked-out completely. On September 22, 2010 Mr. Farber purchased two bottles of the Product from a store called Muscle Maker Grill in Parsippany, New Jersey ("MMG"). He asserts that MMG received those bottles from Defendant Europa, and that the reference to the Molecule was not blacked-out. Mr. Farber further asserts that was selling mislabeled bottles of the product until September of 2010 and that it now sells bottles on which the reference to the Molecule was stricken with a "black permanent marker which can wear off or be rubbed off or only partly covers the reference to the Molecule." (Farber Cert. ¶ 10(d).

Plaintiff filed this action on October 14, 2010, thirteen months after first discovering references to the Molecule on bottles of Hemo Rage Black, and over seven months after its licensing negotiations with Nutrex broke down. Plaintiff seeks an Order enjoining Defendants from, among other things, marketing, promoting, advertising, distributing, selling, and/or offering to sell any product which: (i) utilizes or makes reference to the Molecule; (ii) strikes out or covers up reference to the Molecule; (ii) utilizes or makes reference to anything substantially or confusingly similar to the Molecule; (iii) engaging in any conduct that tends to confuse or mislead purchasers into thinking that Defendants are connected to or sponsored by Plaintiff; (iv) otherwise competing unfairly with Plaintiff; and (v) assisting any other person from engaging in any of the above-described acts.

Additionally, Plaintiff seeks an Order requiring Defendants to: (i) recall all Hemo Rage Black products containing any reference to the Molecule, regardless of whether the reference to the Molecule has been stricken from the Product label; and (ii) take affirmative steps to dispel any ...

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