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Doroshow v. Hartford Life and Accident Insurance Co.

July 30, 2009


On Appeal from the United State District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. (D. C. 2-08-cv-00259) District Judge: Hon. Robert F. Kelly.

The opinion of the court was delivered by: Roth, Circuit Judge


Argued on February 3, 2009

Before: RENDELL, JORDAN and ROTH, Circuit Judges


Jay Doroshow appeals the District Court order granting summary judgment in favor of Hartford Life and Accident Insurance Company. The District Court found that Hartford had not been arbitrary and capricious in its decision to deny long term disability benefits to Doroshow under an employee welfare benefit plan, governed by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. § 1001, et seq. For the following reasons, we will affirm that decision.

I. Background

Doroshow was an employee of the CVS Corporation and participated in its Long Term Disability Income Insurance Plan, a group benefit plan issued by Hartford. CVS "delegated sole discretionary authority to Hartford ... to determine [the participant's] eligibility for benefits and to interpret the terms and provisions of the plan and any policy issued in connection with it."

Doroshow's effective date of coverage was July 1, 2006. Under the plan, long term disability benefits are not payable for disabilities "caused by, contributed to, or resulting from ... a pre-existing condition." A pre-existing condition is one "for which medical treatment or advice was rendered, prescribed or recommended within 12 months (3 months for exempt employees) prior to [the participant's] effective date of insurance." It is undisputed that Doroshow was subject to the three-month look-back period.

Doroshow was diagnosed definitively with Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) on March 15, 2007. On March 16, 2007, Doroshow applied for disability benefits under the Hartford plan. Hartford denied Doroshow's claim on August 30, 2007, writing:

Our review of all of the medical information in your claim file shows that you are claiming benefits because of symptoms related to motor neuron disease (MND), which includes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The medical records obtained from the office of Dr. Goldstein indicate that you were treated for this condition on 05/16/2006. ALS was discussed in this OV, likely due to the type of symptoms you were experiencing and the family history of this disease. Intermittent workup and follow up continued for your reported symptoms until definitive diagnosis was reached in March 2007. You were provided advice related to the possibility of an ALS diagnosis on 05/16/2006, and the symptoms were certainly a precursor to the eventual diagnosis of ALS. This treatment date falls within the 3 month period that ends before your effective date of LTD coverage. This information shows that your condition was Pre-existing.

The office visit with Dr. Arnold Goldstein, M.D., Doroshow's primary care physician, to which Hartford referred in its denial letter, occurred on May 16, 2006, during the look- back period. Hartford's denial relied on Dr. Goldstein's office notes, in which he wrote, "Motor neuron disease. Lumbrosacral plexitis is the most recent diagnosis. Was not felt to be ALS." Hartford determined that during this office visit Dr. Goldstein had rendered advice pertaining to ALS, thus making Doroshow ineligible for long-term disability benefits under the pre-existing condition plan exclusion.

Even prior to the Dr. Goldstein visit during the look-back period, Doroshow's medical records indicate he had received advice and undergone testing related to ALS based on symptoms he was experiencing and a family history of the disease. On July 25, 2005, Dr. Mark J. Brown, M.D., a neurologist, conducted an electromyographic (EMG) test on Doroshow. In Dr. Brown's notes, he wrote: "1. Chronic active degeneration of right leg, arm, paraspinal and bulbar muscles with near-normal nerve conduction studies. These are features of a motor neuron disease. 2. If the left Babinksi sign is a consistent feature then he has the ALS form of motor neuron disease."

Following this test, Doroshow visited Leo McCluskey, M. D., and ALS specialist, on July 27, 2005. Dr. McCluskey wrote that "Doroshow demonstrates evidence of a lower motor neuron process affecting his right leg" and that "[h]e has no upper motor neuron signs." Accordingly, Dr. McCluskey felt that "[t]hese are features that do not support the diagnosis of amyotropic lateral sclerosis or a progressive motor neuron disorder." Doroshow was under Dr. McCluskey's treatment for motor neuron disease ...

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