The opinion of the court was delivered by: William J. Martini, U.S.D.J.
MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. FEDERAL BLDG. & U. S. COURTHOUSE 50 WALNUT STREET, P. O. B OX 419 NEWARK, NJ 07101-0419 (973) 645-6340
This matter comes before the Court on a Motion for Partial Summary Judgment Concerning Applicable Law by Plaintiffs San Lucio, S.r.l. ("San Lucio") and San Lucio USA Corporation ("San Lucio USA") (collectively "Plaintiffs"). Oral argument was held on March 20, 2009. Fed. R. Civ. P. 78. For the reasons stated below, Plaintiffs' Motion for Partial Summary Judgment is DENIED. Furthermore, partial summary judgment is GRANTED in favor of Defendants Import & Storage Services, LLC, Battaglia & Co., Inc., Cisalpino, Inc., Fernando Miguez, Inc., Packing Products Co., Inc., Vorace, Inc., Sanitti LLC, and Robert Quattrone (collectively "Defendants").
The following facts are not in dispute. Plaintiff San Lucio is an Italian exporter of cheese and San Lucio USA is a U.S. subsidiary, incorporated in New Jersey (Pl.'s Am. Cmplt. ¶¶ 6-8). Defendants are an individual and several New Jersey corporations involved in the business of importing cheese into the U.S. (Id. ¶ 18). For many years, Plaintiffs and Defendants engaged in a successful commercial relationship with one another. During this period of time, San Lucio sold numerous quantities of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese from Italy to Defendants in the U.S., for re-sale into the U.S. market (Id. ¶ ¶ 24-26).
The present controversy revolves around six shipments of cheese made between November 2004 and May 2005 (Pl.'s Br. at 4). To date, Defendants have paid San Lucio approximately 800,000 Euros for these shipments, but San Lucio alleges that Defendants owe an additional 329,000 Euros that should have been paid in 2006 or 2007 (Pl.'s Br. at 5). Various receipts and invoices confirm the existence of these shipments, the quantities of cheese exported, and the contract price of the cheese (Pl.'s Br. Ex. 1-2). Indeed, Defendants do not dispute that these shipments took place. However, Defendants argue that the cheese was not sold to them but rather was given to them on consignment (Dft.'s Opp. at 3-4). Because Defendants did not sell it all, they maintain that they do not owe San Lucio any additional money. Defendants also counterclaim that some of the cheese received was non-conforming such that they are not required to pay for it. (Dft.'s Opp. at 4). Defendants did not make any allegations of non-conforming goods until faced with Plaintiffs' Complaint.
While the breach of contract matters at the heart of Plaintiffs' Amended Complaint appear fairly straightforward, this case is complicated by two separate conflict of laws issues. It is these issues that Plaintiffs seek to resolve prior to trial and have raised in their Motion for Partial Summary Judgment. Although the contract is silent as to choice of law, both parties agree that in the event of a dispute, the contract is to be governed by the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods ("CISG"). Indeed, the CISG automatically applies to contracts for sales of goods between parties with places of business in two different member countries, and the U.S. and Italy are both member countries. CISG Art. 1(1). The CISG provides for the payment of prejudgment interest to be paid to the prevailing party in a breach of contract action. However, the CISG is silent as to the specific rate of prejudgment interest to be used or how that rate should be calculated. Furthermore, the CISG is silent with respect to the payment of attorneys' fees and which party is responsible for their payment. San Lucio seeks an order stating that Italian, and not U.S., law will govern both a) the applicable rate of prejudgment interest and b) the payment of attorneys' fees.*fn1
Plaintiffs filed their initial complaint against Defendants in June 2007 and an amended complaint in March 2008. Plaintiffs then filed this motion for partial summary judgment with respect to choice of law in July 2008. The motion was fully briefed in August 2008 and oral argument was heard in March 2009. For the reasons stated below, Plaintiffs' Motion for Partial Summary Judgment is DENIED. Furthermore, partial summary judgment is GRANTED in favor of Defendants.
A court should grant summary judgment only "if the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(c). The burden of showing that no genuine issue of material fact exists rests initially on the moving party. See Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 323 (1986). A litigant may discharge this burden by exposing "the absence of evidence to support the nonmoving party's case." Id. at 325. In evaluating a summary judgment motion, a court must view all evidence in the light most favorable to the nonmoving party. See Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co., Ltd. v. Zenith Radio Corp., 475 U.S. 574, 587 (1986); Goodman v. Mead Johnson & Co., 534 F.2d 566, 573 (3d Cir. 1976).
Once the moving party has made a properly supported motion for summary judgment, the burden shifts to the nonmoving party to "set forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(e); Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 247-48 (1986). The substantive law determines which facts are material. Id. at 248. "Only disputes over facts that might affect the ...