On appeal from the Superior Court of New Jersey, Law Division, Atlantic County, Docket No. L-17302-06.
NOT FOR PUBLICATION WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF THE APPELLATE DIVISION
Before Judges Parrillo and Lihotz.
Plaintiff Aida Kamouh appeals from the summary judgment dismissal of her personal injury negligence complaint against defendants Bally's Park Place and Bally's Atlantic City (collectively Bally's). We affirm.
The essential facts are not in dispute, and viewed most favorably to plaintiff, Brill v. Guardian Life Ins. Co. of Am., 142 N.J. 520, 540 (1995), they are as follows. In the early morning hours of New Year's Day, January 1, 2006, seventy-four year-old plaintiff was a patron at Bally's casino in Atlantic City, playing a slot machine when suddenly and unexpectedly, a woman reached from behind and snatched plaintiff's purse. When plaintiff tried to resist, she was dragged on the ground for some twenty feet from her slot stool, and suffered a fractured tailbone.
Plaintiff was attended by a nurse at Bally's. Having then been immediately contacted, the casino's security department checked its videotape surveillance to determine if there was any camera covering the scene of the assault, but no coverage was found of the incident. Prior to this event, plaintiff, who had been patronizing Bally's for twenty-five years, never had reason to feel unsafe at the casino, having never before experienced any incident involving physical assault or threats.
Plaintiff sued Bally's alleging negligence in failing to provide proper security to insure her safety and spoliation of evidence in failing to preserve any of the security camera videotape from the morning of the incident. Following discovery, in which plaintiff offered no expert proof as to security staffing, the parties cross-moved for summary judgment. Judge Perskie granted Bally's motion and dismissed plaintiff's complaint. Having defined defendant's duty as one to provide a reasonably safe environment and adequate security for the purposes of plaintiff's presence there, the judge found no evidence of breach. He reasoned:
The premise of the plaintiff's argument is (a) that the basic security was not adequate because there was a big crowd and a big crowd of invited high-rollers, and (b) the defendant failed to increase that security.... [O]n the record before me, there's no evidence to suggest that there was anything other than what I'm going to call standard or normal security. And the plaintiff suggests that the jury should be permitted to evaluate, without expert evidence, first, that the basic security was inadequate, and second, that the failure to increase the security was also a breach of the duty. Neither argument is sustainable on this record without expert evidence. The jury is in no position to determine what the adequacy of the basic security was, particularly where, as here, while it is possible to construct a factual scenario in which you could design a security system that would prevent this type of incident as opposed to be able to respond to it, it is somewhat imaginative to do so.... But the fundamental question is whether the security that was provided that night, unaugmented from its norm, either in terms of numbers or locations of people, constituted a breach of the duty. And the second question, obviously, is whether that breach was a proximate cause of the event. In either instance, without expert evidence, what that requires the jury to conclude is that the mere fact of the happening of the assault constitutes evidence of inadequacy of security. That's not the law. And without a standard that would define for the jury what the defendant was supposed to do from the perspective of the number and location of security personnel, either augmented or otherwise, the jury would be left to speculate that the mere fact of the happening of the incident itself constitutes a showing that the security was inadequate. That's all there is. That isn't enough.
The judge also rejected plaintiff's spoliation claim, observing that surveillance cameras do not film everything that's happening in every area of the floor at all times. The cameras move around. The cameras are positioned so that at the instruction of an operator, they can film anything they want instantaneously, but if a camera doesn't happen to be aimed at a particular slot machine, it has to be aimed at it when somebody tells it to.
Having taken notice of a fact of which there was no real dispute, the judge went on to conclude:
That's not spoliation. Spoliation is the intentional destruction of relevant evidence or the negligent failure to maintain relevant evidence, and you don't have either of those in this record. What you have in this record is that they never had the video.
On appeal, plaintiff raises the following issues:
I. THE DANGER OF BEING MUGGED ON NEW YEAR'S EVE IN ATLANTIC CITY ON [SIC] AT A BUSY CASINO IS A DANGER THAT IS EASILY UNDERSTOOD AND UNFORTUNATELY COMMON, FOR WHICH ...