On appeal from Superior Court of New Jersey, Law Division, Hudson County, Indictment No. 06-04-0700; Accusation No. 07-08-0615.
NOT FOR PUBLICATION WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF THE APPELLATE DIVISION
Before Judges Graves and Grall.
Defendant Barki Clark appeals from a final judgment of conviction and sentence. Tried to a jury, defendant was found guilty of two counts of third-degree possession of controlled dangerous substances (CDS), heroin and cocaine, N.J.S.A. 2C:35-10a(1); two counts of third-degree possession of CDS with intent to distribute, N.J.S.A. 2C:35-5a(1) and 2C:35-5b(3); two counts of third-degree possession of CDS with intent to distribute within 1000 feet of school property, N.J.S.A. 2C:35-7; two counts of second-degree possession of CDS with intent to distribute within 500 feet of a public housing facility, N.J.S.A. 2C:35-7.1; third-degree possession of a handgun without a permit to carry, N.J.S.A. 2C:39-5b; second-degree possession of a firearm for the purpose of using it unlawfully against the person of another, N.J.S.A. 2C:39-4a; second-degree possession of a firearm while in the course of committing the crime of possession of CDS with intent to distribute, N.J.S.A. 2C:39-4.1a; aggravated assault by purposely, knowingly or recklessly causing bodily injury to Detective Ludwig, N.J.S.A. 2C:12-1b(1); and, aggravated assault by knowingly pointing a firearm at Detective Armstrong under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference to human life, N.J.S.A. 2C:12-1b(9). The jury found defendant not guilty of knowingly pointing a firearm at Detective Ludwig under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference to human life, N.J.S.A. 2C:12-1b(9). After properly merging defendant's convictions, the trial court sentenced defendant to an aggregate seventeen-year term of incarceration subject to consecutive three-year terms of parole disqualification.*fn1 The court also imposed the required fines, penalties, assessments and license suspension.*fn2
The State's evidence was as follows. On November 3, 2005, Detective Armstrong of the Jersey City Police Department conducted surveillance at the Booker T. Washington housing complex, a multi-building, public housing site. The detective was in an unmarked car, wearing plain clothes, and working with other undercover and uniformed detectives situated nearby. It was dark, but within the housing complex there were street lights, lights on the exterior of the separate buildings, flood lights and a well-lit basketball court.
Detective Armstrong noticed a group of males standing between the entrances of two of the buildings in the complex and sharing hand-rolled cigarettes. Defendant was among the members of the group. As Detective Armstrong watched, a woman approached and handed money to one of the men. After taking her money, that man pointed to defendant and the woman went to him and took the small, white object he handed her. The detective also saw defendant give a white object to a second person who approached the group and gave money to defendant's companion. The transactions both took place within 1000 feet of a school.
Detective Armstrong contacted the officers who were ready to assist him, directed them to the group, left his unmarked car and moved closer to the group of men he was watching. As the other officers entered the complex, displayed their badges and directed the men to get on the ground, defendant ran across the basketball court and toward Detective Armstrong. Although Detective Armstrong directed defendant to stop, defendant kept running.
Detective Armstrong followed defendant. As Detective Armstrong gained ground, defendant headed back toward the center of the complex. Still in pursuit, the detective saw defendant take something from inside his coat. When defendant turned, the detective saw that he was holding a black gun. At that point, Detective Ludwig arrived and defendant pointed the gun at him. Detective Ludwig kicked at defendant's arm and defendant lost his balance, but held onto the gun. When Detective Armstrong confronted him, defendant, holding the gun with his hand in position to pull the trigger, placed the barrel within a foot of the detective's face. Detective Armstrong ducked and tackled defendant. They struggled. When Detective Ludwig joined Detective Armstrong in his effort to place defendant under arrest, defendant punched Detective Ludwig in the face and head, leaving Ludwig with bumps and scrapes.
After the arrest, Detective Ludwig recovered fifty-three bags of heroin and thirty-eight vials of cocaine from defendant's right jacket pocket. Defendant's handgun was also recovered. It was operable and loaded, and defendant did not have a permit authorizing him to carry the weapon.
Officer Wolfe, a Jersey City police officer who worked in the Narcotics Division for eighteen years and was not involved in this investigation, was qualified as an expert in illegal narcotics. He explained that people who sell drugs in open areas are aware of surveillance and divide the labor to create diversions and avoid detection. He further noted that those who sell CDS in open areas often carry guns to protect their "turf" and product. He described the packaging of heroin and cocaine sold to individuals and explained the significance of the labels on the individual bags of heroin and the colored caps on the individual vials of cocaine.
Defendant raises the following issues on appeal:
I. THE DEFENDANT'S RIGHT TO DUE PROCESS OF LAW AS GUARANTEED BY [U.S. CONST. amend. XIV; N.J. CONST. art. 1, ¶ 1] WAS VIOLATED BY THE TRIAL COURT'S FAILURE TO INSTRUCT THE JURY ON THE LAW OF CROSS-RACIAL IDENTIFICATION EVEN THOUGH THERE WERE MULTIPLE CROSS-RACIAL IDENTIFICATIONS AND IDENTIFICATION WAS THE FUNDAMENTAL CONTESTED ISSUE IN THE CASE.
II. THE TRIAL COURT'S INSTRUCTION TO THE JURY DIRECTED THE JURY TO FIND THAT THE DEFENDANT HAD POSSESSED THE GUN, THEREBY VIOLATING THE DEFENDANT'S RIGHT TO DUE PROCESS OF LAW AS GUARANTEED BY [U.S. CONST. amend. ...