On appeal from Superior Court of New Jersey, Chancery Division, Family Part, Union County, FG-20-106-05.
NOT FOR PUBLICATION WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF THE APPELLATE DIVISION
Submitted January 7, 2008
Before Judges Stern, Collester and C.L. Miniman.
These are consolidated appeals by defendants C.C. (Camille)*fn1 and A.R. (Alfred) from the termination of their parental rights to O.R. (Olivia), born September 5, 1991, and J.R. (Jeffrey), born January 23, 1996. Camille and Alfred are the natural parents of eleven children ranging in ages from twenty-three to six at the time the complaint for guardianship was filed by the Division of Youth and Family Services (the Division or DYFS). The four children over the age of eighteen are not parties to the litigation. Two minor children reside with their paternal grandmother after Camille and Alfred voluntarily surrendered their parental rights. The five remaining children named in the Division's complaint are as follows: Olivia; Jeffrey; C.R., a daughter born July 30, 1993; H.R., a daughter born August 17, 1994; and N.R., a daughter born April 1, 2001. During the course of the trial the defendants executed voluntary surrenders of their parental rights to all children except Olivia and Jeffrey, who are the only subjects of this appeal.
From 1990 to 1991 the family was living in New York and involved with New York's children's services agency. Four children were removed from parental care by the State of New York for reasons of neglect. Camille and Alfred moved with their remaining children to New Jersey in October 1996. That same month the Division received a referral from Catholic Charities, which was providing emergency shelter for the family after they had been evicted. Olivia and one of her sisters were placed with their maternal grandmother in a motor lodge in Edison, and the others were with their paternal grandmother in Perth Amboy. The Division learned the family's history of homelessness in New York as well as neglect in the home and truancy.
From the time of the first referral to the date of the filing of the complaint for protective services in 2001, the Division responded to twenty-four referrals for this family from persons reporting lack of housing, filthy living conditions, dirty clothing and other instances of neglect. Another constant problem was that Camille and Alfred were either unwilling or unable to have their children attend school, and, on some occasions when they went to school, the children appeared unwashed, wearing dirty clothing and no underwear. Other referrals received indicated the children were always home, appeared dirty and were begging for food or money. After a police officer entered the home, citations were issued for housing code violations because of garbage strewn about the home, an "extremely foul stench" within the house, unrepaired fire damage, missing windows, and holes in the floor. Although the Division worked extensively with the family toward the goal of family stabilization, little progress was made in keeping the home clean and safe and insuring that the children attended school. The home remained disorganized and dirty, strewn with garbage, infested with roaches and animal feces, and dirty clothes on the children.
On August 28, 2001, the Division filed an order to show cause and verified complaint for protective services with respect to eight of the children including Olivia and Jeffrey to remove them from the parental home based on allegations of neglect. In April 2002, five children, including Olivia and Jeffrey, were placed with extended family members or foster families with the goal of reunifying them with their parents. However, over the course of four years during which the parents and children were monitored, the Division's goal was re-focused to seek permanent adoption homes for the children. Subsequently, this guardianship complaint was filed, which was amended to apply only to Olivia and Jeffrey.
Among efforts by the Division to effect reunification were parenting classes, but Camille did not attend most sessions. Visiting nurses and health services aides found little or no progress. At one point Camille was unwilling to accept the services of a teaching homemaker to help improve the quality of life for herself and her children. Then in April 2001, it was discovered that fifteen-year-old C.R. was pregnant. She gave birth to one child in 2001, and a second a year later. She became the subject of her own DYFS case.
After the protective services order and the removal of the children from their home, Camille and Alfred continued their unstable life pattern. Their water was turned off for non-payment, and they were evicted from their home. Alfred assaulted Camille on one occasion and admitted to alcohol abuse, contrary to what he told the examining psychologists. When their eldest daughter gave birth, mother and her child were placed outside Camille and Alfred's home because of unsanitary living conditions. When Camille gave birth to her eleventh child in August 2002, the Division placed the baby outside the home.
To their credit, both Camille and Alfred attended some parenting classes and enjoyed supervised visitation with all the children removed from their custody. The Division reported that these services achieved a certain degree of success in educating the parents and improving their skills, but they were unable to apply their training on a consistent basis. In a May 5, 2000 report the Division emphasized the need for a permanent plan for Olivia and Jeffrey which stated in part that
[Camille and Alfred] love their children and . . . their children have a strong attachment to their parents. However, the children need permanency. If unification with the parents is not the permanency plan it can be assessed that other children, particularly [Jeffrey and Olivia], would be devastated by this loss and separation. Yet the importance for them to have a permanent plan and stable environment is crucial. In providing permanency there would be an opportunity to decrease the children's sense of ambivalence and anxiety related to the ongoing indecision of reunification.
At trial psychological evaluations of Camille and Alfred were admitted to determine their parental fitness. Dr. Ernesto Perdomo's psychological evaluation of Camille was that she was immature, egocentric, and narcisstic with schizoid and obsessive-compulsive personality features. Her intellectual functioning was borderline. He opined that she would be unable to ascertain her children's needs or appropriately care for them so that they would always be at risk for parental neglect. Dr. Perdomo reached a similar conclusion as to Alfred. He said that Alfred lacked the maturity to raise children and could ...