On appeal from Superior Court of New Jersey, Law Division, Camden County, No. L-1358-04.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Wefing, P.J.A.D.
NOT FOR PUBLICATION WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF THE APPELLATE DIVISION
Before Judges Wefing, Parker and Yannotti.
In this appeal, we are called upon to consider principles of long-arm jurisdiction in the context of Internet activity. Plaintiffs, New Jersey residents, sued defendant, a California resident, for libel, based upon postings he made to an Internet newsgroup. Plaintiffs obtained a default judgment awarding them compensatory damages of $2,644.11 and punitive damages of $1,000,000. The trial court denied defendant's motion to vacate that default judgment. After reviewing the record in light of the contentions advanced on appeal, we affirm in part, reverse in part, and remand for further proceedings.
Plaintiffs, who are father and daughter, reside in New Jersey. Defendant resides in California; he has no contacts of any type with New Jersey. In 1999, plaintiff Richard Goldhaber joined an Internet newsgroup devoted to information concerning cruises and cruise ships; plaintiff Danna Goldhaber joined the group in 2002. Defendant is a member of the same group. Plaintiffs alleged that, commencing in January 2003, defendant began to post on this newsgroup a series of messages that were extremely derogatory about plaintiffs. These messages accused plaintiffs of base activities, including incest and bestiality. Some of the messages contained cruel references to the hearing limitations of plaintiff Danna Goldhaber. We decline to set forth in the body of this opinion examples of these vile messages because doing so would serve no purpose. The record contains no explanation of what motivated defendant to act in such a manner if, indeed, he did so.
Plaintiffs filed a one-count complaint seeking damages for libel. After plaintiffs attempted to serve defendant in California, defendant, according to his certification, consulted with counsel in California who advised him that New Jersey did not have jurisdiction over him. Based upon that, defendant did not respond to plaintiff's suit, and default was entered against him and, subsequently, the default judgment at issue on appeal. Defendant then retained New Jersey counsel who filed a motion to set aside that default judgment. Defendant appeals from the court's order denying his motion.
Defendant presents a number of arguments on appeal. His principal contention, however, is that he is not subject to jurisdiction in New Jersey. The topic of long-arm jurisdiction premised upon use of the Internet has generated a number of comments. Patrick J. Borchers, Symposium: Personal Jurisdiction in the Internet Age: Internet Libel: The Consequences of a Non-Rule Approach to Personal Jurisdiction, 98 Nw. U. L. Rev. 473 (2004); Dennis T. Yokoyama, You Can't Always Use the Zippo Code: The Fallacy of a Uniform Theory of Internet Personal Jurisdiction, 54 DePaul L. Rev. 1147 (2005); Rachael T. Krueger, Traditional Notions of Fair Play and Substantial Justice Lost in Cyberspace: Personal Jurisdiction and On-Line Defamatory Statements, 51 Cath. U. L. Rev. 301 (2001).
Our Supreme Court addressed the question of long-arm jurisdiction in the context of communications over the Internet in Blakey v. Continental Airlines, 164 N.J. 38 (2000). Plaintiff in that case, a female pilot who worked for Continental Airlines, sued her employer, alleging workplace discrimination in violation of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, 42 U.S.C.A. § 2000e et seq. A number of Continental male pilots, in response to Blakey's suit, published on an online computer bulletin board used by Continental pilots a series of messages about her that she viewed as harassing, false and defamatory. Blakey, supra, 164 N.J. at 48.
This on-line bulletin board was called the Crew Members Forum. It was not maintained by Continental but was made available to Continental employees by CompuServe, an Internet service provider, as part of Continental's company-wide computer network. Id. at 48-49.
Blakey amended her lawsuit to contend that Continental had a duty to monitor the usage of this on-line bulletin board by its employees and was thus responsible for the defamatory messages posted about her; she also joined as defendants the offending pilots, contending that they had libeled her in these on-line messages. The individual pilots moved to have her claims against them dismissed, contending that as non-residents with no contacts with New Jersey, New Jersey had no jurisdiction over them. In taking up that issue, the Court ultimately concluded that the record did not contain sufficient information to determine whether New Jersey did, indeed, have jurisdiction over these pilots based upon their postings to this on-line bulletin board. Specifically, the Court noted that there was no evidence in the record whether these pilots knew that Blakey was pursuing her law suit in New Jersey, as opposed to any other forum (Blakey herself did not reside in New Jersey and no longer flew out of Continental's Newark terminal) and whether they knew that their messages would be published in New Jersey. Id. at 70. The Court, therefore, remanded for discovery on those jurisdictional issues.
Significantly, in approaching the question, the Court declined to adopt new principles to analyze the fundamental concept of long-arm jurisdiction in an Internet context. "Rather than to attempt to create a new order of jurisdictional analysis adapted to the Internet, we prefer in this case to adhere to the basics." Id. at 64. The Court summarized the principles underlying the fundamental concept ...