The opinion of the court was delivered by: Dennis M. Cavanaugh, U.S. District Judge
This matter comes before the Court upon motions by Defendants ESPN, Vulcan Sports Media and Sportsline.com ("Defendants") to dismiss Complaint of Charles E. Humphrey, Jr. ("Plaintiff" or "Humphrey") pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure.12(b)(6). No oral argument was heard pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 78. After carefully considering the submissions of the parties and for the following reasons, Defendants' motions to dismiss Plaintiff's Complaint are granted.
Fantasy sports leagues allow participants to "manage" virtual teams of professional players in a given sport throughout a sport's season and to compete against other fantasy sports participants based upon the actual performance of those players in key statistical categories. Fantasy sports have become extremely popular in recent years. They have earned a place in modern popular culture and are the subject of countless newspaper and magazine articles, books, internet message boards and water-cooler conversations. The enormous popularity of fantasy sports can be attributed in part to the services offered on internet websites, such as those operated by Defendants. The websites provide a platform for real-time statistical updates and tracking, message boards and expert analysis. (Compl. ¶¶ 26 - 31).
Fantasy sports leagues allow fans to use their knowledge of players, statistics and strategy to manage their own virtual team based upon the actual performance of professional athletes through a full season of competition. In the early days of fantasy sports, participants compiled and updated the players' statistics manually. Today, the rapid growth of the internet fostered additional services, such as those offered by Defendants, that provide an internet environment and community for playing and discussing fantasy sports. The technology also allows for automatic statistic updates for players and teams and access to expert fantasy sports analysis. As a result, fantasy sports have become much more accessible and popular throughout the country. Id.
Although the rules and services vary somewhat from one fantasy sports provider to another, the websites operate as follows. Participants pay a fee to purchase a fantasy sports team and the related services. The purchase price provides the participant with access to the support services necessary to manage the fantasy team, including access to "real-time" statistical information, expert opinions, analysis and message boards for communicating with other participants. Id.
The purchase price also covers the data-management services necessary to run a fantasy sports team. Using these services, the participants "draft" a slate of players and track the performance of those players in key statistical categories throughout the season. Participants are grouped into "leagues" of as many as twelve teams and compete not only against the members of their own leagues, but can also compete against the winners of the other leagues. Id. at ¶¶ 45 -46.
The success of a fantasy sports team depends on the participants' skill in selecting players for his or her team, trading players over the course of the season, adding and dropping players during the course of the season and deciding who among his or her players will start and which players will be placed on the bench. The team with the best performance -- based upon the statistics of the players chosen by the participant -- is declared the winner at the season's end. Nominal prizes, such as T-shirts or bobble-head dolls, are awarded to each participant whose team wins its league. Managers of the best teams in each sport across all leagues are awarded larger prizes, such as flat-screen TVs or gift certificates. These prizes are announced before the fantasy sports season begins and do not depend upon the number of participants or the amount of registration fees received by Defendants. Id. at ¶¶ 32 - 48.
Plaintiff filed a Complaint on or around June 20, 2006, against Viacom Inc., the CBS Corporation, the CBS Television Network, Sportsline.com, Inc, The Hearst Corporation, The Walt Disney Company, ESPN, Inc., Vulcan, Inc., Vulcan Sports Media and The Sporting News for alleged violations of the anti-gambling laws of New Jersey and several other states. Only ESPN, Sportsline and Vulcan Sports Media remain in the case as Defendants. Plaintiff voluntarily dismissed all other Defendants. The Defendants operate separate pay-for-play online fantasy sport leagues.
The Complaint alleges that Defendants operate three distinct pay-for-play fantasy sports sites in violation of several states' qui tam gambling loss-recovery laws. The Complaint indicates that Plaintiff is invoking the qui tam laws of the District of Columbia, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio and South Carolina in an attempt to recover losses incurred by the residents of each state who participated in the Defendants' fantasy sports games.
Although each state's qui tam statutes differ slightly, there are no substantial differences between the New Jersey statute and those of the other states. Through invocation of the various qui tam laws, Plaintiff alleges that he is entitled to recover the individual gambling losses of all participants of the Defendants' allegedly unlawful gambling schemes. Plaintiff claims that the registration fees paid by fantasy sports leagues participants constitute wagers or bets, and he seeks to recover these fees pursuant to the qui tam gambling loss-recovery statutes. In other words, Humphrey concludes that the Defendants' fantasy sports leagues constitute gambling because the participant "wagers" the entry fee for the chance to win a prize and the winner is determined predominantly by chance due to potential injuries to players and the vicissitudes of sporting events in general.
The ESPN Defendants filed a 12(b)(6) Motion to Dismiss on September 28, 2006. The Sportsline and Vulcan Sports Media Defendants together filed their own 12(b)(6) Motion to Dismiss on September 29, 2006.
The Qui Tam statutes derive from the 1710 Statute of Queen Anne, an English statute that authorized gambling losers and informers to sue to recover losses incurred "at any [t]ime or sitting by playing at [c]ards, [d]ice, [t]ables or other [g]ame or [g]ames whatsoever or by betting on the [s]ides or [h]ands of such as do play at any of the [g]ames aforesaid." 9 Anne ch. 19 (1710), reproduced in 9 Statutes of the Realm (George Eyre & Andrew Strahan, pubs., 1810-1822).
The American versions of the Statute of Anne contain similar language and were similarly directed at deterring traditional gambling. New Jersey's statute, for example, was adopted in 1797 and permitted the recovery of losses incurred "by playing at cards, dice, billiards, tables, tennis, bowls, shuffle-board, or other game or games, or by betting on the sides or hands of such as do play at any game or games, or by betting at cock-fighting, or other sport or pastime." Act to Prevent Gaming, February 8, 17907, ¶¶ 4-5, at New Jersey Session Laws, Legislature 21, 149-151.
Although the specific elements of the Qui Tam statutes vary, they share a common origin and purpose. They were intended to prevent gamblers and their families from becoming destitute due to gambling losses -- and thus becoming wards of the State -- by providing a method for the gambler's spouse, parent or child to recover the lost money from the winner. See Berkebile v. Outen, 311 S.C. 30, 55 (1993) (qui tam statute's purpose is to "protect a gambler . . . from abusing the vice and exceeding limits which bring harm to the gambler and his or her family"); Salonen v. Farley, 82 F.Supp. 25, 28 (E.D. Ky. 1949) (qui tam statute was "primarily intended by the legislature . . . for the protection of the dependents of those losing in gambling"). The statutes were also intended to supplement states' general anti-gaming provisions in an era when local governments' own regulatory and enforcement powers were much less effective than they are today. See e.g., Vinson v. Casino Queen, Inc., 123 F.3d 655, 657 (7th Cir. 1997) (The [Illinois] Loss Recovery Act was intended to deter illegal gambling by using its recovery provisions as a powerful enforcement mechanism."); Salomon v. Taft Broadcasting Co., 16 Ohio App. 3d 336, 475 N.E.2d (1292, 1293 (Ct. App. 1st Dist., 1984) (observing that qui tam statute was "born in a vanished era where the absence of an organized police authority to enforce criminal statutes made necessary the use of such rewards for informers").
Legal Standard on a Motion to Dismiss
In deciding a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss, the Court is required to accept as true the allegations in the complaint, and to view them in the light most favorable to the plaintiff, but the Court "need not credit a complaint's 'bald assertions' or 'legal conclusions.'" Morris v. Lower Merion School Dist., 132 F.3d 902, 906 (3d Cir. 1997). Rather, the Third Circuit has explained that:
the plaintiff must allege sufficient facts in the complaint to survive a Rule 12(b)(6) motion. Confronted with such a motion, the court must review the allegations of fact contained in the complaint; for this purpose, ...