On appeal from Superior Court of New Jersey, Law Division, Atlantic County, L-3771-04.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Payne, J.A.D.
NOT FOR PUBLICATION WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF THE APPELLATE DIVISION
Argued September 26, 2006
Before Judges Weissbard, Payne and Graves.
An order of May 19, 2005 dismissed on the pleadings a proposed class action complaint against Merck & Co. Inc., initially filed by plaintiffs Phyllis Sinclair and Joseph Murray*fn1 on behalf of themselves and others resident in New Jersey or, alternatively, in the United States, who had taken the drug Vioxx in any dose for at least six consecutive weeks at any time between May 20, 1999 and September 30, 2004. In their complaint (predicated on negligence, breach of the Product Liability Act*fn2 and the Consumer Fraud Act,*fn3 breach of warranty and an alleged entitlement to punitive damages) plaintiffs claimed that as a result of their direct and prolonged exposure to Vioxx, they have an enhanced risk of sustaining serious, undiagnosed and unrecognized myocardial infarctions (UMIs) that, in turn, would subject them to the risk of further, significant, long-term cardiovascular harm. As a consequence, they sought as relief the establishment of a court-administered medical screening program, funded by Merck, "to provide for and/or reimburse medical and diagnostic tests for each member of the Class to detect [UMIs] and other latent or unrecognized injuries and, if such injuries are detected and diagnosed, to educate Plaintiffs about available treatment strategies." They also sought to compel a Merck-funded follow-up epidemiological study of former Vioxx users as compared to nonusers to further evaluate post-cessation risk, as well as the retention of jurisdiction by the court to enable it to decide whether the findings of the study justified screening for "unrecognized or latent injuries" other than UMIs. Although plaintiffs claimed no present physical injury, they alleged that the cost of diagnostic testing represented an ascertainable economic loss for which they were entitled to compensation.
The viability of plaintiffs' medical monitoring claim was the sole focus of Merck's motion to dismiss and the trial court's opinion, and it is the sole issue on appeal. The judge's order dismissing plaintiffs' complaint as failing to state a cause of action for such monitoring was premised in large measure on the decisions by the New Jersey Supreme Court in Mauro v. Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp., 225 N.J. Super. 196 (App. Div. 1988), aff'd sub. nom., Mauro v. Raymark Indus., Inc., 116 N.J. 126 (1989) and Theer v. Philip Carey Co., 259 N.J. Super. 40 (App. Div. 1992), rev'd, 133 N.J. 610 (1993). In a carefully reasoned opinion, the judge concluded that plaintiffs' "pure" products liability cause of action differed significantly from those toxic tort actions in which a medical monitoring remedy had been recognized, and after noting that the remedy was "not easily invoked," she declined as a matter of law "to find the New Jersey Supreme Court would extend medical monitoring to the proposed class in this particular action." Further, the judge found the existence of a manifest injury to be a necessary prerequisite to the relief that plaintiffs sought under all the legal theories alleged. She thus dismissed plaintiffs' suit in its entirety.
Plaintiffs have appealed; we reverse and remand the matter for further proceedings. In doing so, we express no opinion as to the ultimate viability of plaintiffs' action. However, as we will explain, we find the dismissal to have prematurely terminated plaintiffs' opportunity to establish the existence of a legally cognizable claim.
A difficulty in this case arises from the relative paucity of New Jersey precedent, which consists in published form of three principal cases: Ayers v. Twp. of Jackson, 202 N.J. Super. 106 (App. Div. 1985), aff'd in part and rev'd in part, 106 N.J. 557 (1987), Mauro, and Theer. As the motion judge recognized, the present case little resembles any of these three.
Ayers was an environmental, toxic tort, nuisance action instituted pursuant to the Tort Claims Act by three hundred residents against a public entity, Jackson Township, alleging damages arising from contamination of local wells by toxic pollutants leaching into the aquifer from a township landfill. The case was tried, and substantial damage awards were entered for emotional distress occasioned by plaintiffs' realization that they had ingested contaminated water for a period of up to six years, for deterioration of plaintiffs' quality of life during the twenty months that they were deprived of running water, and for the future cost of annual medical surveillance that plaintiffs' expert found necessary as the result of plaintiffs' increased susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A pre-trial order of summary judgment dismissing claims for damages as the result of an unquantified enhanced risk of disease was affirmed on appeal on the ground that such a novel claim was not cognizable under the Tort Claims Act.
Ayers, supra, 106 N.J. at 598-99.
On appeal, we had set aside the jury's award for medical surveillance expenses, determining that it was "impossible to say that defendant has so significantly increased the 'reasonable probability' that any of the plaintiffs will develop cancer so as to justify imposing upon defendant the financial burden of lifetime medical surveillance for early clinical signs of cancer." 202 N.J. Super. at 122 (citation omitted). However, the Supreme Court reversed our determination as "unduly imped[ing] the ability of courts to recognize that medical science may necessarily and properly intervene where there is a significant but unquantified risk of serious disease." 106 N.J. at 600. In doing so, the Court discussed the difficulty of proving causation upon eventual manifestation of disease in such environmental exposure cases as the result of the long latency period prior to manifestation of injury and the existence of other intervening exposures. 106 N.J. at 585-87.
The Court then held in language that we find significant to our decision here: the cost of medical surveillance is a compensable item of damages where the proofs demonstrate, through reliable expert testimony predicated upon the significance and extent of exposure to chemicals, the toxicity of the chemicals, the seriousness of the diseases for which individuals are at risk, the relative increase in the chance of onset of disease in those exposed, and the value of early ...