On Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey (D.C. No. 02-cv-04318). District Judge: Honorable Joseph A. Greenaway, Jr.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Fisher, Circuit Judge.
Submitted Under Third Circuit LAR 34.1(a) February 13, 2006
Before: SCIRICA, Chief Judge, BARRY and FISHER, Circuit Judges.
In this case we are asked to review the District Court's grant of summary judgment to Newark, New Jersey, and its police department, on several claims arising from alleged retaliation against a police officer based on his assistance with a federal corruption probe. We will affirm.
James O'Connor was a lieutenant in the Newark Police Department. He provided information to investigators in a federal corruption probe targeting the former Newark police director William Celester. Celester was convicted of embezzlement, and O'Connor alleges that, because of his assistance in the investigation, he was subjected to retaliation on the job.*fn1
O'Connor brought suit against the city and the department under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, charging that they had infringed his rights to substantive and procedural due process (Count I) and to free expression (Count II). He also alleged that the defendants violated his state-law whistleblower rights under N.J.S.A. 34:19-1 (Count III), engaged in a conspiracy in violation of 42 U.S.C. § 1985 (Count IV), failed to prevent that conspiracy in violation of 42 U.S.C. § 1986 (Count V), libeled and defamed him (Count VI),*fn2 and violated a settlement agreement stemming from an earlier lawsuit (Count VIII).
Finally, along with his wife, O'Connor brought a claim for loss of consortium (Count VII).
The District Court determined that O'Connor had failed to present evidence supporting a causal connection between his participation in the investigation and the alleged retaliatory acts, and granted Newark's motion for summary judgment on all counts. We have jurisdiction over this appeal under 28 U.S.C. § 1291. Our review of an order granting summary judgment is plenary. Bieregu v. Reno, 59 F.3d 1445, 1449 (3d Cir. 1995). Summary judgment is proper "if the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(c).
Actions brought under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 are governed by the personal injury statute of limitations of the state in which the cause of action accrued. Cito v. Bridgewater Twp. Police Dep't, 892 F.2d 23, 25 (3d Cir. 1989). For section 1983 actions in New Jersey, "that statute is N.J.S.A. 2A:14-2, which provides that an action for injury to the person caused by wrongful act, neglect, or default, must be convened within two years of accrual of the cause of action." Brown v. Foley, 810 F.2d 55, 56 (3d Cir. 1987). The limitations period for O'Connor's claims is therefore two years.
With minor exceptions, all of the events described in O'Connor's complaint occurred more than two years before filing. O'Connor argues, however, that the statute of limitations should be deemed equitably tolled because his complaint states a hostile workplace environment claim involving a "continuing violation." O'Connor's argument hinges on his hostile workplace environment theory, and requires aggregation of acts occurring outside the limitations period with those occurring inside the period. He does not contend that there are any acts occurring inside the period which, considered in themselves, are sufficient to support liability. Nor has our independent examination of the record revealed any such acts. Because the events that occurred within two years of filing are not, on ...