The opinion of the court was delivered by: Chesler, District Judge
In this Hatch-Waxman Act patent infringement case, defendant Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. ("Teva") moves pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(c) for judgment on the pleadings with respect to plaintiffs Celgene Corporation, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, and Novartis Pharma AG's (collectively "plaintiffs") allegation of willful infringement. For the reasons that follow, Teva's motion is GRANTED.
The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. §§ 301-99, ("FDCA") provides that a company seeking to market a new brand-name drug must submit a New Drug Application ("NDA"). See id. § 355(b)(1). NDAs are generally lengthy applications that include information about the drug such as evidence of its safety and effectiveness, and information about the patents that cover or might cover it. Id. Before Congress passed the Hatch-Waxman Act, a generic drug manufacturer's use of a patented drug was considered patent infringement. This was so even if such use of the patented drug was limited to testing for Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") approval to market its generic equivalent upon expiration of the relevant patents. Accordingly, companies seeking to market generic drugs upon the expiration of patents that covered them were impeded by the cost of filing lengthy NDAs, which they could begin to prepare only upon the expiration of the brand-name drug company's patents. The time it took generic companies to prepare the NDA and obtain FDA approval caused a de facto extension of the patent covering the brand-name drug.
Recognizing the benefit in reducing delays in FDA approval of generic drugs, and as a means to eliminate the de facto extension of the end of a patent term, Congress enacted the Hatch-Waxman Act amendments to the FDCA. The Hatch-Waxman Act conferred two main benefits upon generic drug manufacturers. First, it allowed them to avoid the costly NDA process by filing an Abbreviated New Drug Application ("ANDA") which, in effect, "'piggyback[ed]' on the safety-and-effectiveness information that the brand-name manufacturers submitted in their NDAs." Purepac Pharm. Co. v. Thompson, 354 F.3d 877, 879 (D.C. Cir. 2004) (citing 21 U.S.C. § 355(j)(2)(A) and 21 C.F.R. § 314.94(a)(3)). Thus, among other things, an ANDA must show the proposed generic drug is chemically bioequivalent to a drug that was previously approved by the FDA. 21 U.S.C. § 355(j)(4)(F).
ANDAs must also address patents that cover the drug for which approval is sought. 21 U.S.C. § 355(j)(2)(A)(vii) allows an applicant to satisfy this requirement by including in its ANDA one of several types of "certifications" explaining why the FDA should approve the application despite the patent's claim on the drug. The certification at issue here is a "Paragraph IV Certification" (named for its statutory sub-paragraph), which states "that such patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the manufacture, use, or sale of the new drug." Id. 355(j)(2)(A)(vii)(IV). Applicants use Paragraph IV Certifications to essentially challenge the validity of the brand-name drug manufacturers' patents. An applicant that includes a Paragraph IV Certification in its ANDA must inform both the patent holder and the company that submitted the NDA on which the ANDA "piggybacks." Id. § 355(j)(2)(B)(i). Once notice is served, the FDA must wait forty-five days before approving the ANDA, giving the patent holder the opportunity to file suit. Id. § 355(j)(5)(B)(iii); 21 C.F.R. § 314.107(f)(2). When a Paragraph IV Certification is filed, therefore, the brand-name drug manufacturer is forced to litigate to protect its rights.
If the patent holder sues, the FDA cannot approve the ANDA until the earlier of (A) thirty months from the notice date, (B) the applicant wins the suit, or (C) a date to which the court hearing the suit shortens the thirty month period. 21 U.S.C. § 355(j)(5)(B)(iii). If successful in its challenge, the FDA may approve the ANDA and allow the applicant to market the generic version of the brand-name drug before the expiration of patents covering it. The Act rewards the first generic drug applicant that successfully challenges the patent of an approved drug with a 180-day period in which it may exclusively market the generic version. Id. § 355(j)(5)(B)(iv).
The second benefit of the Hatch-Waxman Act to generic drug manufacturers was a limitation on the potential patent infringement liability to companies that seek FDA approval to market a generic version of the brand-name drug. See 35 U.S.C. § 271(e)(1). While the Act immunizes generic drug manufacturers from patent infringement liability for preparing an ANDA, Section 271(e)(2)(A) provides a jurisdictional basis for an infringement action against the applicant where it seeks approval to market a patented product before the expiration of the patent. The purpose of this provision is "to define a new (and somewhat artificial) act of infringement for a very limited and technical purpose that relates only to certain drug applications." Eli Lilly & Co. v. Medtronic, Inc., 496 U.S. 661, 676 (1990). Thus, if the patent holder sues the applicant within 45 days from the notice, its remedies are limited to the following:
(A) the court shall order the effective date of any approval of the drug or veterinary biological product involved in the infringement to be a date which is not earlier than the date of the expiration of the patent which has been infringed,
(B) injunctive relief may be granted against an infringer to prevent the commercial manufacture, use, offer to sell, or sale within the United States or importation into the United States of an approved drug or veterinary biological product, and
(C) damages or other monetary relief may be awarded against an infringer only if there has been commercial manufacture, use, offer to sell, or sale within the United States or importation into the United States of an approved drug or veterinary biological product. The remedies prescribed by subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) are the only remedies which may be granted by a court for an act of ...