On Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey. (D.C. No. 04-cv-00313). District Judge: Honorable Jerome B. Simandle.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Fisher, Circuit Judge.
Before: ALITO, SMITH, and FISHER, Circuit Judges.
This case presents the issue of whether the debts of a commercial bail bondsman are excepted from discharge, i.e., non-dischargeable, in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy proceeding under 11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(7). Though this precise issue is one of first impression in the Circuit, in In re Gi Nam, 273 F.3d 281 (3d Cir. 2001), we considered the related issue of whether the bail bond debts of an individual family member acting as a surety are excepted from discharge under § 523(a)(7). Relying on the plain meaning of the statute, the purpose and context of Pennsylvania's bail forfeiture laws, and public policy considerations, we determined in Gi Nam that such bail bond debts are non-dischargeable. Because we are persuaded by the reasoning of Gi Nam and the soundness of its expanded application to commercial bondsmen in New Jersey, we will affirm the judgment of the District Court.
New Jersey courts permit individuals and companies to post bail bonds for criminal defendants in return for a fee. See Capital Bonding Corp. v. N.J. Supreme Court, 127 F. Supp. 2d 582, 584 (D.N.J. 2001) (explaining this system). Once the bondsman posts bail for an accused, it becomes the bondsman's responsibility to produce the defendant for required court proceedings. See id. If the defendant fails to appear, then the bail posted is "forfeited," and the bondsman becomes responsible for the amount of bail or for ensuring that the fugitive defendant is captured and brought to court. Id. The bondsman's obligation to satisfy bail in this circumstance may be underwritten by insurance companies licensed to do business in New Jersey. Id.
Appellant Thomas Dobrek ("Dobrek") is an insurance representative licensed to write bail bonds in New Jersey. Prior to filing a Chapter 7 bankruptcy petition in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of New Jersey, Dobrek was, at different times, an authorized agent of various commercial surety companies. In connection with this work, Dobrek was listed on the New Jersey Bail Registry ("Bail Registry"), a list of insurance producers and limited insurance representatives licensed to write bail bonds in New Jersey. See Capital Bonding Corp., 127 F. Supp. 2d at 584. Individuals who are not listed on the Bail Registry cannot engage in the business of writing bonds in that state.*fn1
As an agent who executed bail bonds on behalf of surety companies, Dobrek, like all other such agents in New Jersey, was responsible for the contractual default of these companies in the event that a defendant failed to appear in court, at least to the extent of being precluded from writing additional bonds until the bail forfeiture judgments were satisfied. In re Preclusion of Brice, 841 A.2d 927, 929 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. 2004). In other words, in instances where defendants failed to appear, judgment was entered against both the commercial sureties and Dobrek, as the signer of the bail bond. See id. As a result, Dobrek was jointly bound to pay to the court any amount of money specified in a court order setting bail where a defendant failed to appear at any required court proceedings. See id.
Dobrek filed his Chapter 7 bankruptcy petition on October 29, 2002. On January 25, 2003, he received a discharge from the Bankruptcy Court, relieving him of all debts which arose before that date pursuant to 11 U.S.C. § 727.*fn2
New Jersey Court Rule 1:13-3(e)(2) requires the removal of any bail agents, agencies, guarantors, and other persons or entities authorized to administer or manage an insurer's bail bond business from the Bail Registry for failure to satisfy a judgment. N.J. R. 1:13-3(e)(2).*fn3 Consequently, on January 29, 2003, Dobrek's name was removed from the Bail Registry due to accumulated bail forfeitures resulting from bails in which Dobrek had been the producer for corporate sureties. As a result, Dobrek could not continue to write bail bonds in New Jersey.
On January 27, 2004, Dobrek commenced this action in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey. The Defendant in the matter, Donald Phelan ("Phelan"), is the Clerk of the Superior Court for the State of New Jersey and is responsible for maintaining the Bail Registry. The crux of Dobrek's Complaint is that he was wrongfully removed from the Bail Registry because his bail bond debts were discharged in bankruptcy pursuant to 11 U.S.C. § 727. Dobrek's Complaint specifically alleges that Phelan (i) willfully or otherwise violated the discharge injunction pursuant to 11 U.S.C. § 524(a) and the protections against discriminatory treatment of debtors afforded under 11 U.S.C. § 525(a) by refusing to reinstate Dobrek's name to the Bail Registry and attempting to force him to pay discharged debts; (ii) violated 42 U.S.C. § 1983 by depriving Dobrek of his rights, privileges, and immunities secured by the Constitution and Federal statutes of the United States, specifically the Supremacy Clause and the Bankruptcy Clause of the United States Constitution and 11 U.S.C. § 524(a) and 11 U.S.C. § 525(a); and (iii) intentionally or negligently inflicted emotional distress upon Dobrek.
On May 14, 2004, Phelan filed a Motion to Dismiss. Dobrek responded to that motion and filed a Cross Motion for Partial Summary Judgment on June 10, 2004. On August 4, 2004, the District Court found that Dobrek's bail bond debts were not discharged pursuant to § 523(a)(7), and accordingly, granted Phelan's Motion to Dismiss and denied Dobrek's Cross Motion for Partial Summary Judgment. Dobrek filed a timely notice of appeal on August 16, 2004. Before this Court, Dobrek alleges that the District Court erred in its determination that these debts were excepted from discharge in bankruptcy pursuant to § 523(a)(7). More generally, he argues that the ...