On Appeal From the United States District Court For the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (D.C. No. 02-cv-2352) District Judge: Honorable Anita B. Brody
Before: Nygaard, Rosenn and Becker, Circuit Judges
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Becker, Circuit Judge
Argued: December 13, 2004
Plaintiffs William Anderson and Barry Breslin appeal from a final order of the District Court dismissing their civil RICO complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. Anderson and Breslin's extremely detailed twelve-page complaint alleges a convoluted conspiracy involving coercion, intimidation, and power struggles among competing factions in the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT), arising from the rivalry between the late John Morris, former principal officer of Teamsters Local 115, and James Hoffa, the president of the IBT. Anderson and Breslin are Morris loyalists whose opposition to Hoffa allegedly cost them their jobs as special coating operators at Kurz-Hastings, a Local 115 Teamsters shop in Philadelphia. Defendants are Brian Kada and Paul Vanderwoude, Local 115 members allegedly involved in cigarette smuggling, drug sales, illegal gambling, and extortion; Jack Ayling, a member of Teamsters Local 107 who was also allegedly involved in Local 115's racketeering; James Hoffa, president of the IBT; Thomas Kohn, an attorney who numbers the IBT among his clients; and the IBT itself.
The critical issue on appeal is the existence vel non of a proximate causal relationship between the alleged racketeering acts and the claimed injury, which is necessary to satisfy the RICO standing requirement. See 18 U.S.C. § 1964(c). The appeal thus requires us to explore some of the contours of that doctrine. Because we conclude that the proximate cause test is not met, we will affirm the order of the District Court dismissing the complaint.*fn1
Because this is an appeal from a Rule 12(b)(6) dismissal, we treat all of the allegations in the complaint as true. See Hishon v. King & Spalding, 467 U.S. 69, 73 (1984); Malia v. Gen. Elec. Co., 23 F.3d 828, 830 (3d Cir. 1994). We describe in the margin those allegations that are most essential to the plaintiffs' RICO theory, which tell a seamy and confusing story of union corruption and power struggles.*fn2
As the detailed description suggests, plaintiffs allege that the defendants were involved in a protean racketeering conspiracy. The true gravamen of plaintiffs' allegations, however, is that two of the defendants, Ayling and Kada, committed wire fraud by placing telephone calls to IBT investigator Thomas Schatz in which they made various false accusations against Morris, Anderson, and Breslin's brother Michael. Schatz included these accusations in a report to the IBT. According to plaintiffs, Hoffa relied on this report in imposing an emergency trusteeship on Local 115, and Kurz-Hastings relied on the trusteeship notice in terminating plaintiffs' employment. Plaintiffs allege that these acts of wire fraud, as well as other acts of intimidation and coercion, constitute predicate offenses under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Acts, 18 U.S.C. § 1961-1968 (RICO).
At the outset, we judicially notice the fact that a panel of this Court has approved the IBT's decision to impose a trusteeship on Local 115. See Morris v. Hoffa, 361 F.3d 177 (3d Cir. 2004). We found there that Hoffa's investigation had discovered evidence that Morris and other members of his faction had committed violent attacks against union members (including Kada), and that Morris had been involved in "financial malpractice," nepotism, threats, assaults, extortion, and embezzlement. Id. at 183-84. The panel therefore had no difficulty in finding that the emergency trusteeship was justified.
Defendants moved to dismiss the complaint under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6). The District Court found that, even if plaintiffs could show that defendants violated RICO, their allegations were insufficient to create standing for a civil RICO action, and therefore granted the motion to dismiss. Plaintiffs timely appealed.
The civil RICO statute allows "[a]ny person injured in his business or property by reason of a violation of section 1962 of this chapter [to] sue therefor in any appropriate United States district court." 18 U.S.C. § ...