September 08, 2003; as amended November 14, 2003.
On Appeal from the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania D.C. Civil Action No. 00-cv-04294 (Honorable Robert F. Kelly)
Before: Scirica, Chief Judge,*fn1 Ambro and
Garth, Circuit Judges
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Scirica, Chief Judge
In a labor dispute over unpaid wages, plaintiffs gained certification of an opt-in class under the Fair Labor Standards Act and then sought certification of a Fed. R. Civ. P. 23(b)(3) opt-out class under the Pennsylvania Wage Payment & Collection Law. The District Court granted the Rule 23 certification. At issue is whether the District Court should have exercised supplemental jurisdiction over the state-law class under 28 U.S.C. § 1367.
Plaintiffs are hourly employees at defendant Tyson Foods' two chicken-processing plants in New Holland, Pennsylvania (Lancaster County). Plant One employees work on the production line slaughtering birds and producing meat for direct sale or further processing. Those at Plant Two process the chicken meat, producing prepared, packed chicken products, like chicken nuggets, chicken tenders, chicken patties, and Buffalo wings.
Animal flesh, blood, and fecal matter are present throughout both plants. To protect against disease and safety hazards, Tyson employees are required to perform "donning, doffing, and sanitizing" activities. This entails putting on protective clothing—like hairnets, earplugs, safety goggles, cotton smocks, gloves, and plastic aprons— before the start of their shift, and rinsing their clothing and washing their hands at the end of their shift. Employees receive two unpaid 30-minute meal periods per shift, and must don, doff, and sanitize at the beginning and end of these breaks.*fn2
Tyson ordinarily does not pay its employees for time spent donning and doffing.*fn3 The plaintiff employees are not organized nor do they work under a written contract. There is no collective bargaining.
In August 2000, plaintiffs filed suit against Tyson under both federal law (the Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 U.S.C. §§ 201-219) and state law (the Pennsylvania Wage Payment & Collection Law, 43 P.S. §§ 260.1-260.45) on behalf of themselves and similarly situated co-workers at Tyson's chicken processing complex.
On October 4, plaintiffs sought collective treatment of their FLSA action under the federal statute's opt-in provisions. 29 U.S.C. § 216(b) ("[N]o employee shall be a party plaintiff to any such action unless he gives his consent in writing to become such a party and such consent is filed in the court in which such action is brought."). Plaintiffs did not seek class certification on the state-law WPCL action at that time.
On January 31, 2001, the District Court granted plaintiffs' request to issue notice to prospective class members under the FLSA action. The court's notice stated, in part, "The Court has not yet determined that the claims under the Pennsylvania WPCL can be pursued as a class action, and thus your right to participate in that claim will depend on a later decision by the Court."
On March 15, Tyson mailed out the notice to 3,400 prospective FLSA class members. On June 21, Tyson filed a motion to close the class period. At that time, 502 current and former employees—or 15 percent of the allegedly eligible class—had elected to join the FLSA action by filing written consent forms. Plaintiffs contested the motion to close, claiming that a substantial number of prospective plaintiffs never received notice and that Tyson improperly discouraged its current and former employees from participating in the action. The record showed that 783 putative FLSA class members never received notice of the opt-in action because Tyson mailed the notice to the wrong address.*fn4
On July 24, the District Court closed the class period and denied plaintiffs' motion to reissue notice. The class consisted of 504 current and former employees. The District Court later dismissed, on summary judgment, the claims of 57 of those employees as barred by the statute of limitations. All parties acknowledge that the current size of the FLSA class is 447 persons.
On December 31, the District Court closed discovery. Nearly two months later, on February 22, 2002, plaintiffs filed a motion to certify the supplemental state-law WPCL action under Fed. R. Civ. P. 23. Plaintiffs' motion for class treatment under the supplemental state-law action was filed 17 months after their motion to certify the federal FLSA action. The District Court heard arguments on whether plaintiffs could bring a WPCL action because they had not pleaded a contract claim, the predicate for a WPCL action. On May 14, plaintiffs argued for the first time that the WPCL action was grounded in an implied contract between Tyson and its hourly employees.*fn5
On July 17, despite Tyson's objections that the WPCL certification motion was late and that the implied contract argument was new, the District Court granted plaintiffs' motion to certify the state WPCL action under Fed. R. Civ. P. 23(b)(3).*fn6 The state-law class, an opt-out class, consisted of approximately 4,100 persons, ...