On Appeal from the United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania District Judge: Hon. Sylvia H. Rambo
Before: SCIRICA,*fn1 Chief Judge, Alito, and Mckee, Circuit Judges
The opinion of the court was delivered by: McKEE, Circuit Judge
Argued: September 19, 2002
Krystal Cadillac-Oldsmobile-GMC Truck, Inc., a Chapter 11 debtor, appeals an order of the District Court affirming the Bankruptcy Court's dismissal of the suit Krystal filed against GMC for breach of contract and related causes of action. The District Court concluded that the Bankruptcy Court correctly relied upon the doctrine of judicial estoppel in dismissing all of the counts in Krystal's complaint. We agree that judicial estoppel was properly invoked by the Bankruptcy Court, and we will affirm the order of the District Court.*fn2
I. FACTUAL AND PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND
A. Termination of the Franchise Agreement
Since 1987, Krystal Cadillac has operated a General Motors automobile dealership in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania pursuant to a franchise agreement with GM. Under the terms of that agreement, Krystal maintained a line of credit from a financial institution in order to finance Krystal's purchase of new GM vehicles.*fn3 In October 1991, Krystal lost its "floor plan" financing with General Motors Acceptance Corporation, GM's financial arm, and Krystal was not able to secure any other financing. This constituted a default under the franchise agreement. Consequently, on July 13, 1993, GM notified Krystal that GM intended to terminate the dealer agreements. Following an extension, that termination was to become effective on August 12, 1993. However, on August 11, 1993, the day before the termination became effective, Krystal initiated a proceeding before the Pennsylvania Board of Vehicle Manufacturers, Dealers, and Salespersons ("Vehicle Board") challenging the legality of the franchise termination.*fn4
The Vehicle Board held a hearing on Krystal's petition on August 8, 1994, and entered an Order and Adjudication upholding GM's termination of the dealership agreements on September 27, 1994.*fn5 Krystal thereafter appealed that Order to the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania, but that court affirmed the ruling of the Vehicle Board on November 6, 1995.
B. The Proceedings in the Bankruptcy Court (Krystal I).
On September 8, 1994, (approximately three weeks before the Vehicle Board rendered its decision), Krystal filed for Chapter 11 protection. Thereafter, on June 15, 1995, Krystal filed a Plan of Reorganization in which it provided for the sale of its GM franchise in order to raise funds to pay creditors. GM objected to the plan arguing that it had properly terminated the franchise agreement with Krystal pursuant to the terms of that agreement. The appropriate state agency had upheld the termination, and the Commonwealth Court had affirmed the agency's determination that the termination was proper. Thus, according to GM, the franchise was not an asset of the estate available for sale in the bankruptcy proceedings. On October 24, 1995, Krystal filed an Amended Reorganization Plan and an Amended Disclosure Statement. Article V of the Disclosure Statement stated:
Debtor also holds an Automobile Franchise Agreement with General Motors Corporation. However, the status of this franchise is now in litigation. General Motors terminated the franchise prior to the commencement of the case and the matter was in litigation at the time the Chapter 11 petition was filed. General Motors nevertheless proceeded with termination and the matter is now on appeal in the Commonwealth Court. Debtor takes the position, which is vigorously contested by General Motors, that this franchise agreement remains an asset of the case.
GM responded by filing a separate objection to the plan and disclosure statement based upon its continuing contention that Krystal's franchise was not an asset of the estate and could not be sold by Krystal or the Trustee to satisfy Krystal's creditors.
The Bankruptcy Court affirmed GM's objections and ruled that the franchise had been validly terminated by GM. Accordingly, the court held that the franchise could not be sold as part of the bankrupt's estate. The District Court subsequently affirmed that ruling, and Krystal then appealed to us. We reversed. We held that inasmuch as Krystal had filed for bankruptcy before GM terminated the franchise agreement, GM's termination of that agreement was a violation of the automatic stay imposed under § 362 of the Code. See, In Re Krystal Cadillac Oldsmobile GMC Truck, Inc., 142 F.3d 631 (3d Cir. 1998) ("Krystal I").*fn6
C. Krystal II: The Instant Dispute
On September 25, 1998, Krystal filed the instant action in the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania against GM. Krystal's claims for relief arise from GM's violation of the automatic stay by terminating Krystal's franchise agreement after Krystal filed for Chapter 11 protection. More specifically, Krystal seeks damages on each of the following seven grounds: (1) violation of the automatic stay provisions of the Bankruptcy Code, 11 U.S.C. § 362(h); (2) breach of contract; (3) violations of Federal Dealer's Day in Court Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1221 and of the Pennsylvania Board of Vehicles Act, 63 P.S. § 818 et seq.; (4) conspiracy; (5) conversion; (6) tortious interference with contractual relations; and (7) violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1-7.
The Eastern District Court referred Krystal's suit to the District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania because the claims were interwoven with the bankruptcy action then pending in the Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District. Although GM filed a motion to dismiss under Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6), the court never ruled on that motion. Rather, the court sua sponte dismissed Krystal's complaint in its entirety under the doctrine of judicial estoppel. In doing so, the court noted that Krystal's complaint could also be dismissed for (1) failure to state a claim upon which relief could be granted, and (2) expiration of the applicable statutes of limitations. As noted above, the District Court affirmed the Bankruptcy Court's application of the doctrine of judicial estoppel, and this appeal followed.*fn7
Krystal makes several arguments as to why judicial estoppel was improperly applied here. However, before we address any of those specific arguments, it will be helpful to first provide a brief overview of that doctrine as a framework for our analysis.
A. Judicial Estoppel In General
We first articulated the doctrine of judicial estoppel in Scarano v. Central R. Co. of N.J., 203 F.2d 510 (3rd Cir. 1953). There, we stated that "a plaintiff, who has obtained relief from an adversary by asserting and offering proof to support one position, may not be heard later in the same court to contradict himself in an effort to establish against the same adversary a second claim inconsistent with his earlier contention." Id. at 513. In doing so, we recognized the intrinsic ability of courts to dismiss an offending litigant's complaint without considering the merits of the underlying ...