On certification to the Superior Court, Appellate Division, whose opinion is reported at 308 N.J. Super. 516 (1998).
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Poritz, C.j.
In 1991, the New Jersey Legislature amended the Law Against Discrimination (LAD), N.J.S.A. 10:5-1 to -49, to include protections based on "affectional or sexual orientation." This case requires us to decide whether that law prohibits Boy Scouts of America (BSA) from expelling a member solely because he is an avowed homosexual.
Defendants BSA and Monmouth Council (collectively Boy Scouts) seek review of a decision of the Appellate Division holding that: (1) Boy Scouts is a place of public accommodation as defined by the LAD; (2) Boy Scouts' expulsion of plaintiff James Dale, an assistant scoutmaster, based solely on the club's policy of excluding avowed homosexuals from membership is prohibited by the LAD; and (3) the LAD prohibition does not violate Boy Scouts' First Amendment rights. Plaintiff, James Dale, seeks certification on his common law claim, dismissed by the Appellate Division. We granted both parties' petitions, __ N.J. __ (1999), and now affirm.
1. Organizational Structure and Programs *fn1
BSA, a federally chartered corporation, 36 U.S.C.A. § 30901, operates four scout membership programs: Cub Scouts (for boys eight to eleven-and-a-half), Boy Scouts (for boys and young men eleven to seventeen), Varsity Scouts (for young men fourteen to seventeen), and Explorers (for young men and women fourteen to twenty). In addition to these well-known membership programs, BSA publishes Boys' Life, Exploring and Scouting magazines, and offers an in-school scouting curriculum called Learning for Life that is taught in many schools throughout the country.
BSA membership is an American tradition. Since the program's inception in 1910 through the beginning of this decade, over eighty- seven million youths and adults have joined BSA. As of December 1992, over four million youths and over one million adults were active BSA members. BSA's success in attracting members is at least partly attributable to its long-standing commitment to a diverse and "representative" membership, as well as its aggressive recruitment through national television, radio, and magazine campaigns. BSA also organizes local membership drives, including "School Nights" conducted in cooperation with schools across the nation and held at school facilities.
This vast network of members is managed through a complex of national, regional and local organizations. The National Council is the highest BSA governing body. Its primary functions include "develop[ing] programs, set[ting] and maintain[ing] quality standards in training, leadership selection, uniform[s], registration records, literature development, and advancement requirements; and publish[ing] Boy's Life and Scouting magazines." BSA membership programs are also governed by regional committees that are further divided into area committees. Within each area, BSA accepts applications for the creation of local councils. Defendant, Monmouth Council, is one of sixteen local councils in New Jersey, and one of over four hundred local councils nationwide.
Each local council is made up of districts that are governed by district committees. BSA grants unit charters to individual sponsors in the districts consisting of "organizations and groups of citizens" that establish and "maintain units . . . and . . . issue certificates of membership . . . to the officers and members thereof." Unit charters allow the "organization to use the Scouting program under its own leadership to serve the youth and families for which it has concern, to help it accomplish its own objectives." Individual units are based on age groupings and designated as Cub Scout Packs, Boy Scout Troops, Varsity Scout Teams, and Explorer Posts. In 1991, Monmouth Council chartered approximately 215 units comprised of nearly 8500 youth members and over 2700 adult members.
When deciding whether to grant an individual unit charter, BSA investigates "the general objectives, purpose, character, intent, and programs of the prospective chartered organization or community group and its compatibility with the aims and purposes of the Boy Scouts of America." In respect of established groups, BSA also considers the group's "history, length of service, and general reputation." Generally, BSA prefers granting unit charters to sponsors that are "existing organizations," i.e., established religious, civic, or educational groups. In New Jersey, for example, public schools and school-affiliated groups sponsor close to 500 scouting units, comprising approximately one-fifth of the chartering organizations in the State. Other governmental entities, such as law enforcement agencies, fire departments, city governments, and the military, sponsor approximately 250 scouting units in New Jersey. Sponsor approvals "obligate the organization to provide adequate facilities, supervision, and leadership for at least one year[,] and to make an effort to provide youth members with the opportunity for a quality program experience as set forth in the official literature of the Boy Scouts of America."
A unit charter is renewed annually, "upon application, provided a review of past activities, personnel, and plans for the future shows a satisfactory effort to carry out the scouting program, as set forth in the official handbooks, and [demonstrates compliance] with the Rules and Regulations of the Boy Scouts of America." *fn2 Each chartered unit is supervised by a "unit committee, consisting of three or more qualified adults, 21 years of age or over, selected by the organization with which the unit is connected, or in the case of a community unit[,] of those who make application for the unit charter, one of whom [is] designated as chairman." In Monmouth Council, the units are run by approximately 3000 volunteer leaders and four paid scouting professionals. Of the 3000 volunteers, some 340 are assistant scoutmasters.
According to BSA's federal charter, BSA seeks "to promote, through organization, and cooperation with other agencies, the ability of boys to do things for themselves and others, to train them in Scoutcraft, and to teach them patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred virtues." BSA's Mission Statement also describes BSA's purpose: "It is the mission of the Boy Scouts of America to serve others by helping to instill values in young people and, in other ways, to prepare them to make ethical choices over their lifetime in achieving their full potential." The Scout Oath and Scout Law set forth the guiding principles of BSA:
"Scout Oath On my honor I will do my best To do my duty to God and my country and to obey the Scout Law; To help other people at all times; To keep myself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight.
A Scout is TRUSTWORTHY. A Scout tells the truth. He keeps his promises. Honesty is a part of his code of conduct. People can always depend on him.
A Scout is LOYAL. A Scout is true to his family, friends, Scout leaders, school, nation, and world community.
A Scout is HELPFUL. A Scout is concerned about other people. He willingly volunteers to help others without expecting payment or reward.
A Scout is FRIENDLY. A Scout is a friend to all. He is a brother to other Scouts. He seeks to understand others. He respects those with ideas and customs that are different from his own.
A Scout is COURTEOUS. A Scout is polite to everyone regardless of age or position. He knows that good manners make it easier for people to get along together.
A Scout is KIND. A Scout understands there is strength in being gentle. He treats others as he wants to be treated. He does not harm or kill anything without reason.
A Scout is OBEDIENT. A Scout follows the rules of his family, school, and troop. He obeys the laws of his community and country. If he thinks these rules and laws are unfair, he tries to have them changed in an orderly manner rather than disobey them.
A Scout is CHEERFUL. A Scout looks for the bright side of life. He cheerfully does tasks that come his way. He tries to make others happy.
A Scout is THRIFTY. A Scout works to pay his way and to help others. He saves for the future. He protects and conserves natural resources. He carefully uses time and property.
A Scout is BRAVE. A Scout can face danger even if he is afraid. He has the courage to stand for what he thinks is right even if others laugh at him or threaten him.
A Scout is CLEAN. A Scout keeps his body and mind fit and clean. He goes around with those who believe in living by these same ideals. He helps keep his home and community clean.
A Scout is REVERENT. A Scout is reverent toward God. He is faithful in his religious duties. He respects the beliefs of others."
In its briefs below and to this Court, Boy Scouts claims that the language "morally straight" and "clean" in the Oath and Law, respectively, constitutes a rejection of homosexuality. The Boy Scout Handbook, supra, at 551, defines "morally straight" as follows:
"To be a person of strong character, guide your life with honesty, purity, and Justice. Respect and defend the rights of all people. Your relationships with others should be honest and open. Be clean in your speech and actions, and faithful in your religious beliefs. The values you follow as a Scout will help you become virtuous and self-reliant."
The Boy Scout Handbook also defines "clean":
"A Scout is CLEAN. A Scout keeps his body and mind fit and clean. He chooses the company of those who live by these same ideals. He helps keep his home and community clean.
You never need to be ashamed of dirt that will wash off. . . .
There's another kind of dirt that won't come off by washing. It is the kind that shows up in foul language and harmful thoughts.
Swear words, profanity, and dirty stories are weapons that ridicule other people and hurt their feelings. The same is true of racial slurs and jokes making fun of ethnic groups or people with physical or mental limitations. A Scout knows there is no kindness or honor in such mean-spirited behavior. He avoids it in his own words and deeds. He defends those who are the targets of insults." [Id. at 561.]
Although one of BSA's stated purposes is to encourage members' ethical development, BSA does not endorse any specific set of moral beliefs. Instead, "moral fitness" is deemed an individual choice:
"Morality . . . concerns the "principles of right and wrong" in our behavior, and "what is sanctioned by our conscience or ethical judgment." . . .
In any consideration of moral fitness, a key word has to be "courage." A boy's courage to do what his head and his heart tell him is right. And the courage to refuse to do what his heart and his head say is wrong." [Scoutmaster Handbook, supra, at 71 (emphasis added) (additional internal quotations omitted).]
BSA also does not espouse any one religion, explaining in the Scoutmaster Handbook that "[t]here is a close association between the Boy Scouts of America and virtually all religious bodies and denominations in the United States." Id. at 227. Consistent with its nonsectarian nature, BSA Bylaws require "respect [for] the convictions of others in matters of custom and religion." Boy Scouts "encourages no particular affiliation, [and does not] assume [the] functions of religious bodies," ibid.; indeed, in a training manual entitled Scoutmaster Fundamentals prepared "for Scoutmasters, Assistant Scoutmasters, Troop Committee members, and parents," BSA categorically states: "Religious instruction is the responsibility of the home and church."
A large and diverse group of religions that subscribe to many different and sometimes contradictory beliefs sponsor BSA units throughout the United States. Some of those sponsors have participated in this case as amici curiae, taking a variety of positions in respect of homosexuality, i.e., that homosexuality is "immoral"; that "discrimination based upon sexual orientation" is to be "strongly condemn[ed]." BSA, however, encourages its leaders to refrain from talking about sexual topics. Although the Boy Scout Handbook, supra, at 528, contains a subchapter entitled "Sexual Responsibility" which states that "[f]or the followers of most religions, sex should take place only between married couples," sexual topics are not formally discussed during Boy Scout activities. Rather, BSA "believes that boys should learn about sex and family life from their parents, consistent with their spiritual beliefs."
In 1992, of the five million members of BSA, approximately one million youths and 420,000 adults were involved in the Boy Scout division. Those members belonged to over 44,000 Boy Scout troops throughout the country.
According to the Boy Scout Handbook, id. at 2, a boy may become a Boy Scout if he "has completed the fifth grade, or . . . has earned the Arrow of Light Award, or [is at least] 11 years of age but not yet 18" and "[c]omplete[s] the Boy Scout joining requirements." The Boy Scout joining requirements call for the applicant to:
"Submit a completed Boy Scout application and health history signed by [a] parent or guardian.
Repeat the Pledge of Allegiance.
Demonstrate the Scout salute, sign, and handclasp.
Show how to tie the square knot.
Understand and agree to live by the Scout Oath, the Scout Law, the Scout motto, the Scout slogan, and the Outdoor Code.
Describe the Scout badge.
With [a] parent or guardian, complete the exercises in the pamphlet How to Protect Your Children from Child Abuse and Drug Abuse.
Participate in a Scoutmaster conference." [Id. at 4.]
Adult applicants are also subject to joining requirements. They must be recommended by the troop representative and approved by the local council, and they must subscribe to the Declaration of Religious Principle, *fn3 the Scout Oath and the Scout Law. Once an adult member is approved, that person is also qualified to be a leader. Boy Scouts explains that the terms "adult membership and adult leadership. . . . are interchangeable . . . since adults . . . have no other reason to join apart from leadership in service to boys."
James Dale first became a BSA member in 1978 when, at the age of eight, he joined Monmouth Council's Cub Scout Pack 142. He remained a Cub Scout until 1981, when he became a member of Boy Scout Troop 220, also in Monmouth Council. He joined Monmouth Council's Boy Scout Troop 128 in 1983, and Troop 73 in 1985. Until his eighteenth birthday in 1988, he remained a youth member of Troop 73.
Dale was an exemplary scout. Over the ten years of his membership, he earned more than twenty-five merit badges. In 1983, he was admitted into Boy Scouts' Order of the Arrow, the organization's honor camping society, and achieved the status of Virgil Honor. The pinnacle of Dale's career as a youth member came in 1988, when BSA awarded him an Eagle Scout Badge, an honor achieved by only the top three percent of all scouts.
Dale's participation in Boy Scout leadership began at an early age. Throughout his years as a member, Dale was an assistant patrol leader, patrol leader, and bugler, and from 1985 to 1988, Dale served as a Junior Assistant Scoutmaster for Troop 73. He was also invited to speak at organized Boy Scout functions, such as the Joshua Huddy Distinguished Citizenship Award Dinner, and attended national events, including the National Boy Scout Jamboree. On March 21, 1989, Dale sought adult membership in Boy Scouts. Monmouth Council and BSA accepted and approved his application for the position of Assistant Scoutmaster of Troop 73 where he served for approximately sixteen months.
At about the same time that Dale applied for adult membership, he left home to attend Rutgers University. While at college, Dale first acknowledged to himself, and to his family and friends, that he was gay. Shortly thereafter, he became involved with, and eventually became the co-president of the Rutgers University Lesbian/Gay Alliance. Then, in July 1990, Dale attended a seminar that addressed the psychological and health needs of lesbian and gay teenagers. The Star-Ledger interviewed Dale and published an article on July 8, 1990 that discussed the seminar. The article included Dale's photograph and a caption identifying him as "co-president of the Rutgers University Lesbian/Gay Alliance." Kinga Borondy, Seminar Addresses Needs of Homosexual Teens, Star-Ledger (Newark), July 8, 1990, § 2, at 11.
Later that month, Dale received a letter from Monmouth Council Executive James W. Kay, revoking his BSA membership. The letter asked Dale to "sever any relations [he] may have with the Boy Scouts of America," and granted Dale sixty days to request a review of his termination from the Monmouth Council Regional Review Committee.
Dale wrote to Kay on August 8, 1990, and requested the basis for the Monmouth Council's decision. In a letter dated August 10, 1990, Kay notified Dale that the "grounds for [his] membership revocation" were "the standards for leadership established by the Boy Scouts of America, which specifically forbid membership to homosexuals." *fn4 On September 30, 1990, Dale wrote a letter to the Northeast Regional Director, Rudy Flythe, asking for a review of his membership decision and a copy of BSA's leadership standards. Dale also requested permission to attend the review, a right to which he was entitled under the Monmouth Council Review Procedures. The Regional Review Committee acknowledged receipt of Dale's request, but neglected to provide him with a copy of the BSA standards for leadership or a review date.
In another letter dated October 16, 1990, Dale once again asked for a copy of the leadership standards and notice of the review date. On November 27, 1990, Charles Ball, the Assistant Regional Director of the Northeast Region, notified Dale that the "Northeast Region, [BSA] Review Committee supports the decision of the Monmouth Council . . . to deny your registration with [BSA]," and granted Dale thirty days to seek review by the National Council Review Committee. Three weeks later, through counsel, Dale wrote to the Chief Scout Executive of BSA and requested a rehearing and an opportunity to attend the review. BSA's counsel informed Dale on December 21, 1990, that he had been denied the right to attend because: "[BSA] does not admit avowed homosexuals to membership in the organization so no useful purpose would apparently be served by having Mr. Dale present at the regional review meeting." BSA did agree, however, to have the National Council review Dale's membership revocation. Because Dale believed that a National Council review "would be futile," he initiated these legal proceedings.
On July 29, 1992, Dale filed a six-count complaint against BSA and Monmouth Council in the Superior Court of New Jersey. Dale alleged that Boy Scouts had violated the New Jersey Law Against Discrimination and common law by revoking his membership based solely on his sexual orientation. He sought declaratory, injunctive, compensatory and punitive monetary relief, as well as costs and attorney fees.
Dale moved for partial summary judgment in September 1993, demanding immediate reinstatement based on his claim that defendants had violated the LAD and New Jersey's public policy. Defendants, in response, cross-moved for summary judgment on all counts. The court denied Dale's motion and granted Boy Scouts' cross-motion. Dale v. Boy Scouts of Am., No. MON-C-330-92 (Ch. Div. Nov. 3, 1995). After concluding that Dale was "a sexually active homosexual," the court found that Boy Scouts had always had a policy of excluding "active homosexual[s]." Id. at 6, 38. The court opined that homosexual acts are immoral and attributed to Boy Scouts a longstanding antipathy toward such behavior. Id. at 39-40. In the Judge's view, "[i]t [was] unthinkable . . . that the BSA could or would tolerate active homosexuality if discovered in any of its members." Id. at 40.
As to the applicability of the LAD, the court held that Boy Scouts was not a place of public accommodation, or alternatively, that Boy Scouts was exempt under the "distinctly private" exception found at N.J.S.A. 10:5-5l. Id. at 55. The court rejected Dale's common law claim, finding that the State's policy "is that established by the NJLAD . . . [and] not some prior common law policy." Id. at 45. Because the court believed that Boy Scouts' moral position in respect of active homosexuality was clear, it found that Boy Scouts' First Amendment freedom of expressive association "prevent[ed] government from forcing [the organization] to accept Dale as an adult leader-member." Id. at 71.
The Appellate Division affirmed the dismissal of Dale's common law claim, but otherwise reversed and remanded for further proceedings. Dale v. Boy Scouts of Am., 308 N.J. Super. 516, 523 (App. Div. 1998). In a separate opinion, Judge Landau concurred with the majority's holding that Boy Scouts should restore Dale's membership, but Dissented from the majority "to the extent it would compel the Boy Scouts to accept . . . Dale . . . [in] any Scout leadership position." Id. at 564.
The majority held that Boy Scouts, a "place of public accommodation," had violated the LAD by denying Dale the "privilege" of serving as a volunteer assistant scoutmaster based solely on his sexual orientation. Boy Scouts was a "public accommodation" because it "invite[d] 'the public at large,'" was "dependent upon the broad-based participation of members of the general public," "engage[d] in advertising and public promotion," shared "many attributes in common with" the places and activities enumerated in the LAD, and had "historic[ally] partner[ed] with various public entities and public service organizations." Id. at 536, 539. "For the [same] reasons," the court "summarily" rejected Boy Scouts' argument that it was exempt from the LAD under the "distinctly private" exception. Id. at 540. The court dismissed Dale's common law claim, finding Dale had "not demonstrate[d] that a common law cause of action would vindicate any additional interests." Id. at 543. Consequently, the common law claim was held merely "duplicative of the LAD claim." Id. at 541.
On Boy Scouts' federal constitutional claims, the Appellate Division ruled that Boy Scouts was not protected by either the right to freedom of intimate association or to expressive association "inferred from other rights and protections guaranteed by the constitution" and found in the First Amendment. Id. at 544-45. The court quickly disposed of Boy Scouts' freedom of intimate association argument, observing that the organization "consists of nearly 5,000,000 members[,] . . . is open to all boys[,] . . . engages in aggressive advertising and undertakes a variety of special interest activities in schools and other public forums." Id. at 546. Based on those characteristics, the court held that Boy Scouts "lacks the distinctive qualities that might afford constitutional protections under this component of the First Amendment." Ibid.
In respect of Boy Scouts' freedom of expressive association claim, the majority "conclude[d] that enforcement of the LAD by granting plaintiff access to the accommodations afforded by scouting will not affect in 'any significant way' BSA's ability to express [its] views and to carry out [its] activities." Id. at 550. Noting "the tension between the freedom to associate for the purpose of expressing fundamental views and the compelling state interest in eradicating discrimination," the court found that the "organization or club asserting the freedom has a substantial burden of demonstrating a strong relationship between its expressive activities and its discriminatory practice." Id. at 548. Although the court accepted the argument that the First Amendment protects Boy Scouts' goals and activities, it determined that the relationship between Boy Scouts' stated goals and Boy Scouts' exclusionary practice was not significant enough to overcome the compelling state interest in eradicating invidious discrimination. Id. at 549-50.
In its analysis, the Appellate Division focused on Boy Scouts' "'expressive purpose,' [which] is not to condemn homosexuality," but to "instill values in young people." Id. at 549, 550. The court found that "enforcement of the LAD by granting plaintiff access to the accommodations afforded by scouting will not affect in 'any significant way' [Boy Scouts'] ability to express these views and to carry out these activities." Id. at 550. The court observed that the LAD "does not aim at the suppression of speech," and "[n]othing . . . suggests that a male, simply because he is gay, will somehow undermine [Boy Scouts'] fundamental beliefs and teachings." Id. at 550, 552. Boy Scouts' 1991 and 1993 position statements were rejected as representations of the "collective 'expression'" of Boy Scouts because these papers were issued at "a time when [Boy Scouts'] anti-gay policy was subject to judicial challenge in California"; "such policy [had] not been incorporated into [Boy Scouts'] bylaws, rules, regulations and handbooks"; the position expressed "hardly squares with the view shared by a substantial percentage of church groups who sponsor local boy scout troops"; and Boy Scouts "has not attempted to exclude" religious institutions and heterosexual scouts who "have condemned [Boy Scouts'] anti-gay policy." Id. at 554-55, 556.
The Appellate Division distinguished Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Group of Boston, 515 U.S. 557, 115 S. Ct. 2338, 132 L. Ed. 2d 487 (1995), a case that held parade organizers have "the autonomy to choose the content of [their] own message," id. at 573, 115 S. Ct. at 2347, 132 L. Ed. 2d at 503. The court pointed out that, unlike Hurley, Dale does not involve "pure forms of speech" or a "plaintiff [who] is . . . asserting a right . . . to alter the content of [Boy Scouts'] viewpoint." Dale, supra, 308 N.J. Super. at 559, 560. The court refused to accept Boy Scouts' allegation that Dale's "public declaration that he is gay in and of itself constitutes 'expressive activity' sufficient to forfeit his entitlement to membership in the BSA." Id. at 560. "In [the court's] view, there is a patent inconsistency in the notion that a gay scout leader who keeps his 'secret' hidden may remain in scouting and one who adheres to the scout laws by being honest and courageous enough to declare his homosexuality publicly must be expelled." Ibid.
Judge Landau concurred with the majority's determination that Dale's adult membership could not be terminated, but Dissented on whether Dale could be removed from his leadership position in the troop. Although Judge Landau refused to look behind Boy Scouts' claim that its "fundamental" message would be altered if an avowed homosexual served as an assistant scoutmaster, id. at 563, in his view Boy Scouts' message was ultimately irrelevant. According to Judge Landau, "Boy Scouts['] . . . right of unfettered advocacy" is violated when Dale is reinstated as a leader "whether or not the Boy Scouts' stand on homosexuality is fundamental to that organization's creation." Id. at 564.
We first consider whether Boy Scouts is subject to the LAD, which provides that "[a]ll persons shall have the opportunity . . . to obtain all the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of any place of public accommodation, . . . without discrimination because of . . . affectional or sexual orientation." N.J.S.A. 10:5-4. Boy Scouts must therefore abide by the LAD if Boy Scouts is a place of public accommodation and does not meet any of the LAD exceptions. See, e.g., N.J.S.A. 10:5-5l (exempting "distinctly private" entities, religious educational facilities, and parents or individuals acting "in loco parentis" in respect of "the education and upbringing of a child").
1. Place of Public Accommodation
"[T]he overarching goal of the [LAD] is nothing less than the eradication 'of the cancer of discrimination.'" Fuchilla v. Layman, 109 N.J. 319, 334 (quoting Jackson v. Concord Co., 54 N.J. 113, 124 (1969)), cert. denied, 488 U.S. 826, 109 S. Ct. 75, 102 L. Ed. 2d 51 (1988). "[D]iscrimination threatens not only the rights and proper privileges of the inhabitants of [New Jersey,] but menaces the institutions and foundation of a free democratic State." N.J.S.A. 10:5-3. In furtherance of its purpose to root out discrimination, the Legislature has directed that the LAD "shall be liberally construed." Ibid. We have adhered to that legislative mandate by historically and consistently interpreting the LAD "'with that high degree of liberality which comports with the preeminent social significance of its purposes and objects.'" Andersen v. Exxon Co., 89 N.J. 483, 495 (1982) (quoting Passaic Daily News v. Blair, 63 N.J. 474, 484 (1973)).
A clear understanding of the phrase "place of public accommodation" is critical. That is because "place of public accommodation" is, in large measure, determinative of the LAD's scope. Certainly, if the statute is broadly applicable, the antidiscriminatory impact of its provisions is greater. The Legislature's finding that the effects of discrimination are pernicious, and its directive to liberally construe the LAD, have informed our cases interpreting the reach of "place of public accommodation."
In 1965, the Court held that places of public accommodation were not limited to those enumerated in the statute. Fraser v. Robin Dee Day Camp, 44 N.J. 480, 486 (1965) (then N.J.S.A. 18:25-5(l)). At that time, the statutory definition used the word "include" to preface a list of specific "places" of public accommodation. See id. at 485. We reasoned that the Legislature's choice of the word "include" indicated that the "places" expressly mentioned were "merely illustrative of the accommodations the Legislature intended to be within the scope of the statute. Other accommodations, similar in nature to those enumerated, were also intended to be covered." Id. at 486. Less than a year later, the Legislature amended the LAD to expressly state that "'a place of public accommodation' shall include, but not be limited to" the various examples identified, L. 1966, c. 17 (emphasis added), thereby reaffirming our broad construction of the statutory language. *fn5
Later, the word "place" became a further source of legal dispute. In National Organization of Women v. Little League Baseball, Inc., 67 N.J. 320 (1974), we affirmed the decision of the Appellate Division holding that: "[t]he statutory noun 'place' . . . is a term of convenience, not of limitation[,] . . . employed to reflect the fact that public accommodations are commonly provided at fixed 'places.'" 127 N.J. Super. 522, 531 (App. Div. 1974). The defendant in Little League was a chartered baseball league that excluded girls between the ages of eight and twelve years from participation in its programs. The league contended that it did not come "within the meaning of the statute, primarily because it [was] a membership organization which does not operate from any fixed parcel of real estate in New Jersey of which it had exclusive possession by ownership or lease." Id. at 530. The court rejected that narrow view of "place":
"The "place" of public accommodation in the case of Little League is obviously the ball field at which tryouts are arranged, instructions given, practices held and games played. The statutory "accommodations, advantages, facilities and privileges" at the place of public accommodation is the entire agglomeration of the arrangements which Little League and its local chartered leagues make and the facilities they provide for the playing of baseball by the children." [Id. at 531 (citations omitted).]
In New Jersey, "place" has been more than a fixed location since 1974.
As Boy Scouts correctly observes, other jurisdictions interpreting their antidiscrimination laws have found "place" to be a limiting factor encompassing only a fixed location. See, e.g., Welsh v. Boy Scouts of Am., 993 F.2d 1267, 1269 (7th Cir.) (holding that Boy Scouts is not "place of public accommodation" under Title II of Civil Rights Act of 1964 because "Congress when enacting § 2000a(b) never intended to include membership organizations that do not maintain a close connection to a structural facility within the meaning of 'place of public accommodation'"), cert. denied, 510 U.S. 1012, 114 S. Ct. 602, 126 L. Ed. 2d 567 (1993); United States Jaycees v. Richardet, 666 P.2d 1008, 1011 (Alaska 1983) (stating that "the word 'place' . . . .would not encompass a service organization lacking a fixed geographical situs"); United States Jaycees v. Bloomfield, 434 A.2d 1379, 1381 (D.C. 1981) (disagreeing with lower court's Conclusion that "it is not necessary that there be a building . . . in order to categorize an existing entity as a place of public accommodation"); United States Jaycees v. Iowa Civil Rights Comm'n, 427 N.W.2d 450, 454 (Iowa 1988) (stating that "United States Jaycees is not a 'place' within our definition of 'public accommodation'"); United States Jaycees v. Massachusetts Comm'n Against Discrimination, 463 N.E.2d 1151, 1156 (Mass. 1984) (finding that Massachusetts antidiscrimination law "does not apply to [a] membership organization, since such an organization does not fall within the commonly accepted definition of 'place'").
We observe that not all jurisdictions have interpreted "place" so narrowly. The New York Court of Appeals has held that a "place of public accommodation need not be a fixed location, it is the place where petitioners do what they do," including "the place where petitioners' meetings and activities occur." United States Power Squadrons v. State Human Rights Appeal Bd., 452 N.E.2d 1199, 1204 (N.Y. 1983). The Supreme Court of Minnesota has also approved a flexible construction of the term "place." In United States Jaycees v. McClure, 305 N.W.2d 764, 773 (Minn. 1981), the Minnesota court agreed with the Little League premise that a "'place of public accommodation' . . . is less a matter of whether the organization operates on a permanent site, and more a matter of whether the organization engages in activities in places to which an unselected public is given an open invitation."
Despite numerous additions and modifications to the LAD in the twenty-four years since Little League was decided, the New Jersey Legislature has not enacted a limiting definition of place. See Massachusetts Mutual Life Ins. Co. v. Manzo, 122 N.J. 104, 116 (1991) (stating that "[t]he Legislature's failure to modify a judicial determination, while not dispositive, is some evidence of legislative support for the judicial construction of a statute . . . . [especially when] the Legislature has amended [the] statute several times without altering the judicial construction"). We decline now to construe "place" so as to include only membership associations that are connected to a particular geographic location or facility. As the Appellate Division has so aptly pointed out, "[t]o have the LAD's reach turn on the definition of 'place' is irrational because 'places do not discriminate; people who own and operate places do.'" Dale, supra, 308 N.J. Super. at 533 (quoting Welsh, supra, 993 F.2d at 1282 (Cummings, J., Dissenting)). A membership association, like Boy Scouts, may be a "place" of public accommodation even if the accommodation is provided at "a moving situs." Little League, supra, 127 N.J. Super. at 531. In this case it is readily apparent that the various locations where Boy Scout troops meet fulfill the LAD "place" requirement.
Our case law identifies various factors that are helpful in determining whether Boy Scouts is a "public accommodation." We ask, generally, whether the entity before us engages in broad public solicitation, whether it maintains close relationships with the government or other public accommodations, or whether it is similar to enumerated or other previously recognized public accommodations.
Broad public solicitation has consistently been a principal characteristic of public accommodations. Our courts have repeatedly held that when an entity invites the public to join, attend, or participate in some way, that entity is a public accommodation within the meaning of the LAD. See, e.g., Clover Hill Swimming Club, Inc. v. Goldsboro, 47 N.J. 25, 33 (1966) (stating that "[a]n establishment which by advertising or otherwise extends an invitation to the public generally is a place of public accommodation"); Sellers v. Philip's Barber Shop, 46 N.J. 340, 345 (1966) (stating that "[a]n establishment which caters to the public or by advertising or other forms of invitation induces patronage generally is a place of public accommodation"); Fraser, supra, 44 N.J. at 488 (stating that "[i]n light of the nature of the facilities and activities offered to the general public by respondent's day camp, we hold that it is a public accommodation"); Little League, supra, 127 N.J. Super. at 531 (stating that "Little League is a public accommodation because the invitation is open to children in the community at large"); Evans v. Ross, 57 N.J. Super. 223, 231 (App. Div.) (stating that LAD requires "an establishment which caters to the public, and by advertising or other forms of invitation induces patronage generally, [not to] refuse to deal with members of the public who have accepted the invitation"), certif. denied, 31 N.J. 292 (1959); see also Kiwanis Int'l v. Ridgewood Kiwanis Club, 806 F.2d 468, 475 (3d Cir. 1986) (stating that LAD ...