On appeal from the Superior Court of New Jersey, Law Division, Essex County.
Approved for Publication August 19, 1997.
Before Judges Long, A.a. Rodriguez *fn1 and Cuff. The opinion of the court was delivered by Long, P.j.a.d.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Long
The opinion of the court was delivered by
On August 17, 1988, James Hoy and his parents filed a complaint against several individuals and entities, including Brother Vincent McNally and the Christian Brothers Institute (CBI). The complaint alleged that while a student at Essex Catholic High School in the fall of 1982, James Hoy was sexually assaulted by Brother Andrew Hewitt.
CBI, a non-profit organization affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, provided education and religious instruction and guidance at Essex Catholic, under a contract with the Archdiocese of Newark. In 1982, Brother McNally served as the religious superior of the high school, pursuant to the assignment by CBI. Brother McNally indicated in a certification that at the time of the alleged sexual assaults, in his capacity as religious supervisor, he "was responsible for overseeing goverance of [Essex Catholic], as well as the overall management of same." Further, he stated in the certification that:
I worked closely with the provincial leadership in CBI's main office in New Rochelle, New York. In my capacity as a Christian Brother, I have taken a vow of poverty and rely entirely on CBI for room, board and financial support. I receive money from CBI for those expenses not paid directly by CBI and I am under the direction and control of CBI's provincial headquarters in New Rochelle, New York.
The Hoys alleged in their complaint that Brother McNally: (1) negligently and/or intentionally failed to report the alleged assaults to the appropriate authorities; and (2) allegedly conspired to conceal the assaults from them.
At the time of the alleged assault, CBI held two policies of insurance with defendant Providence Washington Insurance Company (insurer). The first policy, a business owner's policy, had a $500,000 limit per occurrence and covered liability incurred by CBI, any executive officer, director, or stockholder while acting within the scope of their duties for all sums which the insured becomes legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage. The second policy, a commercial umbrella policy, had a $2,000,000 limit per occurrence and covered liabilities of CBI, its executive officers, directors, stockholders, or other employees while acting within the scope of their duties for which the insured becomes legally obligated to pay on account of, among other things, personal injury. In this policy, "personal injury liability" is defined as meaning, among other things, "bodily injury, sickness, disease, disability, shock, mental anguish and mental injury." The umbrella policy provided coverage over underlying policies or self-insured retention where there was no underlying coverage. Both policies in effect at the time of the alleged incident provided for defense and indemnification of the insureds. Additionally, both policies contain "no action" clauses which, in relevant part, prohibit an action against the insurer "until the amount of the insured's obligation to pay . . . shall have been finally determined either by judgment against the insured after actual trial or by written agreement of the insured, the claimant and the [insurer]." Both policies also indicate that the insured does not have the right to join the insurer as a co-defendant in any action against the insured to determine the insured's liability.
On October 20, 1988, John Duffy, general counsel for CBI, directed a copy of the Hoy complaint to the insurer. On November 15, 1988, Ross Wasielke, branch claim manager for the insurer, informed Duffy that Brother Hewitt was not an "insured" under the policies.
Apparently there was no further contact between the insurer and Duffy until July 7, 1989, at which time Duffy informed Wasielke that the law firm of Clapp & Eisenberg, counsel for Brother McNally, believed there was a negligence claim in the Hoy litigation against Brother McNally and/or CBI.
Approximately one year later, on July 10, 1990, Duffy again wrote Wasielke and informed him that CBI had not yet been named a party defendant in the Hoy litigation. He also stated that Clapp & Eisenberg advised him there may be a statute of limitations defense, but "none of us would prefer to have to plead such a defense if we do not have to do so." He went on to note:
It appears that a Louisiana attorney has suddenly made his appearance in the case perhaps too well known. He is, we are advised, the attorney for the excess carrier which covers the Archdiocese. He and his company are putting pressure on the Archdiocese obviously seeking to force an early settlement. To that end he wants ...