On appeal from the Superior Court of New Jersey, Law Division, Atlantic County.
Antell, Ashbey and Arnold M. Stein. The opinion of the court was delivered by Arnold M. Stein, J.A.D.
Plaintiff appeals the order granting summary judgment to defendant-third-party plaintiff Council on Affordable Housing (COAH) and dismissing the complaint. In a comprehensive oral opinion, Judge Gibson ruled that COAH's imposition of an eighteen-month moratorium on the development of certain lands in Cherry Hill Township was not an unconstitutional taking of plaintiff's affected property. U.S. Const., Amend. V and XIV; N.J. Const. (1947), Art. I, para. 20. We agree and affirm.
Plaintiff is the owner of 140 acres in Cherry Hill. In May 1985, a complaint was filed in the Law Division (Fair Share Housing Center, Inc., et al. v. Township of Cherry Hill, Docket No. L-042750-85 P.W.), alleging that the township had failed to provide for a fair share of its region's present and prospective needs for low and moderate income housing. N.J. Const. (1947), Art. I, para. 1; Art. IV, § 6, para. 2. So. Burl. Cty. N.A.A.C.P. v. Tp. of Mt. Laurel, 67 N.J. 151, 174, 336 A.2d 713 (1975) (Mount Laurel I); So. Burlington Cty. N.A.A.C.P. v. Mount Laurel Tp., 92 N.J. 158, 208-209, 456 A.2d 390 (1983) (Mount Laurel II).
In 1985, in response to the Mount Laurel rulings, the Legislature enacted the Fair Housing Act, N.J.S.A. 52:27D-301 et seq., L. 1985, c. 222, § 1, eff. July 2, 1985. The act is intended to satisfy the constitutional obligations enunciated by our Supreme Court in the two Mount Laurel decisions. N.J.S.A.
52:27D-302 creates COAH and endows that agency with the powers to define housing regions within the state and the regional need for low and moderate income housing, along with the power to promulgate guidelines for municipalities to determine their fair share of their regions' needs. The council is also empowered to decide whether the proposed ordinances and related planning steps will satisfy a particular community's Mount Laurel obligations.
The Act further provides for all pending and future Mount Laurel cases to be transferred to COAH, except where, in cases filed more than sixty days before July 2, 1985, such transfer would result in "manifest injustice to any party to the litigation." N.J.S.A. 52:27D-316.
By letter dated January 23, 1986, Judge Gibson transferred the discriminatory housing suit against Cherry Hill to COAH.
By resolution dated March 2, 1987, COAH found that the regional housing element and fair share plan (N.J.S.A. 52:27D-309) submitted by Cherry Hill contained certain deficiencies which the municipality was given sixty days to correct. Thereafter, by resolution dated April 29, 1987, COAH determined that land was a scarce resource in Cherry Hill, and issued an order restraining the municipality from granting any type of development approval for any parcel of land of two or more acres. The restraint was issued pursuant to N.J.A.C. 5:91-11.1:
At any time, upon its own determination, or upon the application of any interested party, and after a hearing and opportunity to be heard, the Council may issue such orders as may be necessary to require that a participating municipality take appropriate measures to preserve scarce resources that may be essential to the satisfaction of the municipality's obligation to provide for its fair share of its region's present and prospective need for low and moderate income housing.
This regulation derives its substantive authority from Hills Dev. Co. v. Bernards Tp. in Somerset County, 103 N.J. 1, 510 A.2d 621 (1986) (Hills Development):
We have concluded that the Council has the power to require, as a condition of its exercise of jurisdiction on an application for substantive certification, that the applying municipality take ...