The opinion of the court was delivered by: SAROKIN
This case presents the unique question of whether a person confined to a mental institution must obtain the consent of his or her appointed guardian to challenge that commitment and confinement. The issue is complicated where the guardian is an agency of the state or is appointed by an agency of the state. Ancient and recent times are rife with stories of persons wrongfully confined to mental hospitals and institutions. No more vital right exists in our society than the ability to challenge those commitments through adequate due process. To require the individuals so confined to obtain the consent of their keepers in order to launch those challenges would render the right meaningless. If a conflict exists between the alleged incompetent and his or her guardian, the consent of the guardian should not be a prerequisite to a petition to challenge the commitment.
The danger of wrongful commitment is so onerous that no impediment should stand in the path of its review. It would be perverse to conclude that a person who wished to challenge a finding of mental incompetency was barred from doing so because of the existence of the finding.
Plaintiffs appeal from two provisions of the magistrate's January 27, 1988 order. The court finds the magistrate's actions contrary to law, vacates the magistrate's order, and remands the case to him for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.
Plaintiffs Bonnie S., Dolores C., Sylvia T., Agnes P., and Agnes F. are mentally retarded adults who are currently residing at New Jersey Developmental Center in Totowa, New Jersey. Plaintiff Dorothy G. is an adult woman who also resides at the Center, but who is not mentally retarded.
The plaintiffs allege that, at some time in the past, the defendants committed them to the Center and appointed guardians for them without hearings or review of any kind. Dolores C., Sylvia T., and Bonnie S. receive public guardianship services from the Bureau of Guardianship Services, an entity within New Jersey's Division of Developmental Disabilities. Agnes P. and Agnes F. receive private guardianship services.
On September 10, 1987, the plaintiffs filed this lawsuit against the defendants, state officials responsible for the administration of state programs for the mentally retarded. In their complaint they allege deprivations by the defendants of their constitutional and federal statutory rights. Their allegations call into question the lawfulness of their involuntary commitment and wardship without standards, hearings, or judicial review. Amended Complaint, Claims I - VI, IX. They also state claims for violations of the equal protection clause, Amended Complaint, Claim VII, and the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1396 and 1396a et seq., Amended Complaint, Claim VIII.
In January, the plaintiffs moved before the magistrate to compel production of plaintiffs' complete records as well as the guidelines the state uses in appointing guardians. By order filed January 29, 1988, the magistrate directed the defendants to turn over to plaintiffs only the "current medical records (those within the last three months)" for plaintiffs Bonnie S., Dolores C., and Sylvia T. The magistrate failed to order any disclosure of the records of plaintiffs Agnes P. and Agnes F. The magistrate also ordered, sua sponte, that plaintiffs' counsel contact the private guardians of plaintiffs Agnes P. and Agnes F. within thirty days of January 11, 1988, to obtain their consent to the pursuit of the litigation. If counsel failed to contact the guardians or failed to obtain consent, the magistrate ordered that those two plaintiffs would suffer the entry of voluntary dismissals.
The court may not engage in a de novo review of this matter, for it is on appeal from the magistrate. Under F.R.C.P. 72(a), the court may only "modify or set aside any portion of the magistrate's order found to be clearly erroneous or contrary to law." In this case, though, the court finds both of the magistrate's challenged holdings contrary to law.
The magistrate ordered that Agnes P.'s and Agnes F.'s cases would be voluntarily dismissed if their attorneys were unable to obtain consent to the prosecution of the actions from their private guardians. Implicit in this order was a holding that the private guardians have exclusive control over their wards' involvement in civil litigation. The magistrate may have based his ruling on N.J.S A. 3B:12-57(d), which confers upon a guardian the authority to "institute an action to compel the performance by any person of a duty to support the ward or to pay sums for the welfare of the ward . . ."
However, there is no real support -- in the statute or elsewhere -- for the magistrate's ruling. The statute only confers on the guardian the authority to file suit on behalf of the ward; nowhere does it make that authority exclusive. See N.J.S.A. 3B:12-57(d) ("he may institute an action . . ."). More importantly, "modern authorities generally regard the requirement that a guardian sue or be sued for the incompetent person as a protection of the interests of the incompetent person rather than as a limitation on his or her capacity to institute suit." S. Brakel, J. Parry and B. Weiner, The Mentally Disabled and the Law 437 (3d ed. 1985) (emphasis added). Especially in a lawsuit such as this one, where the plaintiffs are challenging the lawfulness of their confinement -- a confinement in which their guardians accede -- wards cannot be forbidden from suing without their guardians' consent. That consent, by definition, is unlikely to be forthcoming. See Norcom v. Rogers, 16 N.J. Eq. 484 (Ch. 1864); In re Williston, 17 N.J. Misc. 400, 10 A.2d 159 (Monmouth Cty. Orphans Court 1939). See also 44 C.J.S. Insane Persons § 142; Quada v. Quada, 396 S.W.2d 232, 234 (Tex.Civ.App. 1965); Guardianship of Walters, 37 Cal. 2d 239, 231 P.2d 473, 480 (1951); State v. Barton, 210 Ark. 816, 198 S.W.2d 512, 516 (1946); Westerdale v. Johnson, 191 Neb. 391, 215 N.W.2d 102, 103 (1974); Mathews v. Mathews, 25 Misc. 2d 250, 203 N.Y.S.2d 475, 479 (Sup. Ct. 1960); In re Sigel, 372 Pa. 527, 94 A.2d 761, 763 (1953).
This is not to say, of course, that wards are free to file suit without any constraints. Rather, there must first be a showing that the interests of ward and guardian are in conflict.
See Melick v. Melick, 17 N.J. Eq. 156, 159 (1864). In this case, however, the plaintiffs had no opportunity to make any such showing, for the magistrate raised the issue of consent sua sponte. The court therefore vacates the magistrate's order and ...