comparison of 18 U.S.C. § 510(a)(2) and 18 U.S.C. § 495. Section 510 was written, as indicated in the legislative history cited by both parties, to fill in some gaps left by the particular wording of § 495. Section 495 does not specifically apply to United States Treasury checks, bonds, or other obligations of the United States government. Section 510 is specifically directed at offenses involving United States Treasury checks, particularly offenses involving forged endorsements and sales to middlemen which could not be easily prosecuted under § 495. (Defendant-Appellant Appendix, p. 19(a)). Defendant argues that § 510(a)(2) does nothing but echo § 495 and that it is § 510(b) that covers those offenses not covered by § 495. Section 510(a)(2) does not, however, use identical language to § 495. While § 495 forbids only uttering or publishing, § 510(a)(2) forbids uttering, passing, or publishing. The legislative history, as cited by the parties, contains no discussion regarding the decision to insert the word pass in § 510(a)(2), thus making it different from § 495. Furthermore, the legislative history says nothing about § 510(b) being the only "new" legislation nor does it indicate that § 510(a)(2) is meant to be merely a repetition of § 495. This court must examine the accepted meanings of utter and pass at the time Congress decided to insert both terms in § 510(a)(2). The court can look to the interpretations of "utter" as it is used in § 495 and the interpretations of "utter" and "pass" when used in the same clause of a statute in the disjunctive.
In United States v. Hyatt, 565 F.2d 229, 232-3 (2d Cir. 1977), the Second Circuit Court of Appeals held that to convict an individual of uttering a check under 18 U.S.C. § 495 "there must be some attempt to circulate the check by means of a fraudulent representation that it is genuine." (quoting from United States v. Brown, 495 F.2d 593, 597 n. 4 (1st Cir.), cert. denied, 419 U.S. 965, 42 L. Ed. 2d 179, 95 S. Ct. 226 (1974)). While providing a definition of uttering the court does not discuss the term pass nor use it as interchangeable with the term utter. See also United States v. DeJohn, 638 F.2d 1048, 1054-6 (7th Cir. 1981).
18 U.S.C. § 472 makes it a crime to either utter or pass counterfeit obligations or securities of the United States. In United States v. DeFilippis, 637 F.2d 1370 (9th Cir. 1981), the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals found that pass and utter have different meanings. The court found that while uttering has been interpreted as "requiring an intent or offer to pass a note, coupled with a declaration that it is good," passing is defined as using the item, in the case of § 472 a counterfeit bill, in payment or exchange. Id. at 1373. The court found no requirement that a conviction for passing include proof that the defendant represented that the bill was genuine. At the time that Congress enacted 18 U.S.C. § 510(a)(2), 18 U.S.C. § 472 included the terms pass and utter in the disjunctive and the courts have interpreted those terms as describing somewhat different crimes. Passing was read as having its plain meaning with no requirement that the defendant have represented the item as genuine, while uttering required a showing that the defendant had represented the item as genuine. The court can find no indication that when Congress enacted 18 U.S.C. § 510(a)(2) it had any intention of changing the plain meaning of pass or intended that pass and utter be given the identical meaning.
The court finds that when an offense is charged conjunctively in the indictment or complaint guilt may be established by proof of any single act named disjunctively in the statute. United States v. Niederberger, 580 F.2d 63, 68 (3d Cir. 1978), cert. denied, 439 U.S. 980, 58 L. Ed. 2d 651, 99 S. Ct. 567. The court concludes that the Magistrate's determination that pass and utter have different meanings is correct, and further holds that there was sufficient evidence to convict Mr. Williams of passing a Treasury check. The court will affirm the Magistrate's order of November 25, 1986 vacating the order granting defendant's Rule 29(c) motion and reinstating the jury verdict of guilty.
It is on this 9th day of September, 1987
ORDERED that defendant's appeal be and hereby is denied.
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