On appeal from Superior Court, Law Division, Morris County.
Pressler, Dreier and Gruccio. The opinion of the court was delivered by: Gruccio, J.s.c. (temporarily assigned).
Plaintiff Killeen Trucking, Inc. appeals from a judgment of dismissal entered by the Law Division following a non-jury trial. The trial judge found that the damage to plaintiff's container which was coupled to a trailer chassis was not part of a "trailer" covered by an insurance policy issued by defendant Great American Surplus Lines Insurance Co. We disagree and reverse.
The facts are essentially uncontested. On December 10, 1981, plaintiff's trailer which was 13 feet 6 inches high incurred damage when it attempted to pass under a bridge whose clearance was only 12 feet 6 inches. The trailer consisted of a "chassis", or wheels and frame, to which a box or "container" was attached.*fn1 The attachment of the container and chassis was accomplished by clamps. The effect of this coupling was to render a chassis and container identical to the trailer portion
of a conventional tractor trailer. The entire weight of the container is supported by the chassis and the coupled unit is then towed by a tractor.
The parties' contract of insurance provided coverage for "loss to a trailer caused by a collision." The policy defines "trailer," however the definition is not helpful in determining whether plaintiff's trailer is a trailer within the meaning of the policy language.*fn2 Defendant contends that the policy provides coverage only for damages sustained to the chassis portion of plaintiff's trailer. Defendant thus refused to accept liability for damages to the container portion of the trailer alleging it to be excluded by the policy.
Since there is an ambiguity in the meaning of "trailer" we turn our attention to interpreting the term "trailer" as employed in the insurance policy in question. In the absence of a specific definition in an insurance policy, the words used by the insurer must be interpreted in accordance with their ordinary, plain and usual meaning. Jorgenson v. Metropolitan Life Ins. Co., 136 N.J.L. 148, 152 (N.J.Sup.Ct.1947); Lansco, Inc. v. Dept. of Environmental Protection, 138 N.J. Super. 275, 281-282 (Ch.Div.1975), certif. den. 73 N.J. 57 (1977). See also Cooper v. Government Employees Ins. Co., 51 N.J. 86, 93; Mondelli v. State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co., 193 N.J. Super. 522, 525 (App.Div.1984).
While this issue has not been dealt with in a reported decision in New Jersey, other jurisdictions faced with the problem have referred to dictionary definitions in determining the plain, ordinary and commonly understood meaning of the term "trailer" in an insurance policy. See Safeguard Insurance Co. v. Justice, 203 Va. 972, 128 S.E. 2d 286 (Sup.Ct.1962); Jones v.
Beiber, 251 Iowa 969, 103 N.W. 2d 364 (Sup.Ct.1960). "Trailer" is defined as "a vehicle or one in a succession of vehicles hauled usually by some other vehicle: as a nonautomotive highway or industrial-plant vehicle designed to be hauled . . ." Webster's Third New International Dictionary (unabridged 1971). Other jurisdictions when determining the common usage of the term "trailer" have used their motor vehicle codes for guidance. See Corsi Bros. v. Daly, 242 N.Y.S. 2d 865, 39 Misc. 2d 1076 (1963) aff'd 21 A.D. 2d 853, 252 N.Y.S. 2d 253 (1964); Safeguard Insurance Co. v. Justice, 203 Va. 972, 128 S.E. 2d 286 (Sup.Ct.1962).
Our Motor Vehicle and Traffic Code, N.J.S.A. 39:1-1 defines: "Trailer" as a "vehicle with or without motive power, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that no part of its weight rests upon the towing vehicle." "Semitrailer" is defined as a "vehicle with or without motive power, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that some part of its weight and that of its load rests upon or is carried by another vehicle." N.J.S.A. 39:1-1. The fact a "trailer" has none of its weight resting upon the vehicle pulling it while a "semitrailer" has part of its weight on the other vehicle is not significant when it is the plain ordinary meaning of "trailer" which is the focus of our inquiry.
The ordinary person looking at a truck pulling a "trailer" on the highway would not be able to discern whether the "trailer" was a trailer, semitrailer or container. Clearly the plain, ordinary and commonly understood meaning of "trailer" to the public if based on observation would ...