The opinion of the court was delivered by: FISHER
Pacor's motion appears to offer a legal theory innovative in New Jersey. State law, which governs these diversity actions, Erie R. Co. v. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64, 82 L. Ed. 1188, 58 S. Ct. 817 (1938), clearly holds that for a cause of action in strict liability to be proved, a plaintiff "must establish  that the product was defective,  that the defect arose while in the control of the defendant, and  that the plaintiff suffered injury thereby." Scanlon v. General Motors Corp., 65 N.J. 582, 590, 326 A.2d 673 (1974). Pacor focuses on the second of these three elements, arguing that it never exercised the requisite control or possession over the "defective" products in question because it acted "solely as a broker" in the relevant transactions that resulted in the supplying of asbestos materials to which plaintiffs were exposed. In effect, Pacor should obtain judgment as a matter of New Jersey law since it never handled the asbestos products but acted merely as "the voice over the phone" that placed Buyer X's order with Seller Y.
The defense thus raised by Pacor seems innovative, as mentioned above, because as far as the court can determine, no New Jersey court has expressly addressed the narrow question whether "mere brokers" are outside the chain of culpable marketers-distributors of defective products. There is certainly sweeping language in the reported decisions for the proposition that "under New Jersey law, manufacturers, as well as all subsequent parties in the chain of distribution, are strictly liable for damages caused by defectively designed products." Michalko v. Cooke Color & Chemical Corp., 91 N.J. 386, 394, 451 A.2d 179 (1982) (emphasis added). Yet these broad terms do not squarely hold that brokers are within the chain. Thus, as a federal court sitting in diversity, we are called upon to predict
what a New Jersey court would do if confronted with the two critical issues presented here, namely, whether self-styled mere brokers may be held strictly liable in tort and, perhaps more fundamentally, whether Pacor is in fact a "mere broker."
Some factual background is useful at this point. The actions are brought by employees who were exposed to raw asbestos and asbestos-containing insulation products at the Union Carbide Corporation in Bound Brook, New Jersey. The exposure occurred at various times between 1946 and 1980. Carbide records indicate that between 1960 and 1972 Pacor participated as an intermediary of some sort in Carbide's purchase of approximately 3.5 million pounds of raw asbestos products from Canadian Johns-Manville. Pacor acknowledges this fact (see Reply Brief of Defendant Pacor, Inc., in Support of Motion (Reply Brief) at 6-7) but adds, somewhat extraneously, that Carbide's total asbestos purchases during relevant times amounted to 43.5 million pounds. Of that amount, 5.8 million pounds were purchased directly from Johns-Manville during the years 1951 through 1960 before Pacor entered the picture. Id. Pacor further asserts that its business involved principally the installation of asbestos pipecovering in the Philadelphia area and normally did not encompass sales of asbestos fibers. Affidavit of James E. Sullivan, Chairman of the Board of Pacor, Inc. (Sullivan Affidavit). "At the request of Johns-Manville, Pacor acted as a broker for sales of asbestos fiber from Johns-Manville's mines to Union Carbide" but Pacor "never delivered any asbestos fiber or products to Union Carbide." Id. Thus, the argument goes, the Pacor-brokered sales to Carbide were isolated and infrequent events, unique both to the nature of movant's customary business and to the geographic scope of its operations. "Pacor's only involvement in the transaction was to receive orders which were forwarded to the miner, to send invoices and to insure the forwarding of the proper funds." Reply Brief at 10.
The court takes note of answers to interrogatories 3, 31, and 80, indicating that Pacor, and its predecessor Philadelphia Asbestos Corporation, has been an insulation contractor, distributor, and fabricator for over 60 years, a member of the Asbestos Textile Institute (1949-50), and a manufacturer of asbestos-containing textiles (1942-50). Exhibit A to Plaintiffs' Brief in Support of Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment as to Defendant Pacor, Inc. and in Opposition to Defendant Pacor, Inc.'s Motion for Summary Judgment.
Although the parties are not in complete agreement as to the significance and characterization of some of these facts, there is no genuine dispute as to the underlying substance. Therefore, summary judgment is appropriate.
The threshold problem is to define the term "broker."
The parties have provided the court with no authority on this point and my research has disclosed nothing of relevance in the New Jersey cases. The question arose in this court, however, in Martins Ferreira v. Jayess Corp., 214 F. Supp. 723 (D.N.J. 1963). There Judge Wortendyke wrote that a broker is "one whose duty is to bring parties together and he is, in effect, a go-between whose responsibility it is to effect agreement between the parties. " Id. at 727. See also Thomas v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 254 F.2d 233, 236 (5th Cir. 1958). The court turned for further guidance to Justice Story's treatise on agency.
The true definition of a broker seems to be that he is an agent, employed to make bargains and contracts between other persons in matters of trade, commerce, or navigation . . . . Properly speaking, a broker is a mere negotiator between the other parties, and he never acts in his own name, but in the names of those, who employ him: . . . He is strictly therefore, a middle man, or intermediate negotiator between the parties.
J. Story, Agency § 28 (1846).
Movant obviously fits this broad description. It is evident from the Sullivan Affidavit that Pacor was invited to handle a transaction and accepted willingly. It is undisputed that the deliveries of asbestos fiber were made directly from Johns-Manville to Carbide. There is nothing to indicate that the asbestos in question passed through Pacor's hands at any time. The inference then is that Pacor was indeed a broker in the Manville-Carbide relationship.
By the same standards, however, Pacor was not an ordinary broker or, to use Story's words, " strictly a middleman." Although movant may indeed have rendered a largely ministerial service, the record indicates that Pacor was more than a blind order-taker. Pacor was intimately involved in the asbestos industry for a number of years as contractor, distributor, and fabricator. Its familiarity with the hazards and norms of the industry is evidenced by its practice of requiring employees working in areas of excessive dust concentration to wear protective devices and respirators. (Answer to Interrogatory 105, Exhibit A to Co-defendants' Brief.) Pacor was not an unsophisticated plyer of the trade nor were the amounts of asbestos which reached Carbide by virtue of its efforts insignificant. Additionally, although Pacor's brokerage service was an isolated and limited feature of its overall business, the brokered transactions were by no means isolated or occasional but occurred in ten of the thirteen years, culminating in 1972.
Against this background it would be a misconstruction of the record to characterize Pacor as a "mere broker"; perhaps "broker plus" would be more apropos. In any event, because the mere broker label does not apply, Pacor's motion premised on that notion need not be addressed further and will be denied.
There remains the related but different question put by plaintiffs' cross-motion: an affirmative determination whether Pacor, regardless of the broker phraseology, was a link in the distribution chain as a matter of law. Since this much narrower issue does not hinge on the ...