and state levels (Tr. V, 167; Exhibit 94 (organizational flowchart of PIRG)). The local boards of directors are responsible for PIRG activities on each constituent campus of Rutgers (Id.; Tr. IX, 12-13). Local board members elect the members of the state board of PIRG which ultimately governs the organization, sets policy and chooses the projects and activities in which PIRG becomes involved (Tr. V, 167; Tr. VIII, 61-68). The representation of each Rutgers campus on the PIRG state Board of Directors is proportionate to the relative sizes of the constituent campuses (Tr. V, 167-68).
22. The PIRG state Board of Directors, composed entirely of students, elects one of its members to serve as the state chairperson of PIRG (Tr. VIII, 61). The chairperson, among other duties, runs monthly meetings, oversees the PIRG support staff, proposes agendas, and supervises numerous PIRG committees, which include a hiring committee, a projects committee and a finance comittee (Tr. VIII, 63). He or she acts as the liaison from PIRG to other groups and organizations within the University and as a general spokesperson for PIRG (Tr. VIII, 81).
23. The state Board of Directors is solely responsible for the selection of PIRG's activities (Tr. VIII, 64, 68). Any student at Rutgers, whether or not active in PIRG, may submit suggested projects for PIRG to the consideration of PIRG's board of directors (Tr. VIII, 63). Among the factors relied upon by the students in selecting projects for PIRG are (a) whether there is adequate student interest in the proposed project; (b) whether the resources of PIRG could support the project; (c) whether PIRG staff members or students had expertise in the area; (d) what sort of end result would arise from the project (e.g., a pamphlet or publication); (e) the amount of time a project would consume; and (f) the need in the community for the project (Tr. VIII, 64). The projects and positions of PIRG are selected annually by the students governing the organization (Tr. VI, 113: "We are not bound by what was done in previous years nor do we bind the next State Board" (Angela Dileo, former PIRG chairperson)).
24. The PIRG board of directors has the responsibility of hiring and firing the executive director of PIRG (Tr. V, 177). The executive director is selected by the state Board of Directors after applicants are interviewed and screened by a Hiring Committee composed of members of the board (Tr. V, 179-80).
25. The executive director of PIRG is the salaried supervisor of the PIRG staff who oversees PIRG's activities on a day-to-day basis (Tr. V, 177-78). In addition to the executive director, who is a full-time employee of PIRG, there are six other full-time employees and one part-time employee of the organization who work with Rutgers students to implement PIRG policies and supervise PIRG internships (Tr. V, 183). These other employees include coordinators of PIRG activities on the constituent campuses, an administrative director, a part-time attorney and an outreach director who coordinates PIRG's relations with citizens in the community (Tr. V, 183-84). PIRG's organizational structure is detailed in Exhibit 94 (see also Tr. IX, 19-20).
26. Students active in the governance of PIRG testified that their governance activities and responsibilities have in themselves been educational, in that they learn leadership and organizational skills, group dynamics and communications skills, technical writing and public speaking (Tr. V, 186; Tr. VIII, 68-69; Tr. IX, 14). One former PIRG leader emphasized that PIRG activities helped her develop feelings about the importance of citizenship and an individual's responsibility to contribute to society (Tr. V, 187).
27. The paid staff of PIRG advise the students and assist in the development and execution of PIRG projects, but exercise no vote on the PIRG boards of directors (Tr. V, 168-74; Tr. IX, 18, 25).
28. For several years of its existence, ending in July 1981, PIRG employed a legislative director to lobby in support of positions taken by the PIRG state Board of Directors (Tr. IX, 21, 44). PIRG does not currently employ a legislative director (Tr. IX, 21).
29. PIRG's activities are predominantly undertaken by student interns at the constituent campuses of Rutgers (Tr. IX, 23). Many students choose to intern at PIRG for academic credit or in conjunction with their classwork (Tr. IX, 23-24; see also infra Finding No. 36). Other students volunteer their time to assist with PIRG projects (Tr. IX, 25). Hundreds of students at Rutgers have participated in PIRG's activities (Tr. VIII, 11; Tr. IX, 23-24; Exhibit 182 at pp. 22-27).
30. Those students interning with PIRG for academic credit can arrange for such credit by designing a research project and asking a member of the Rutgers faculty to approve and supervise their activities (Tr. IX, 24). Individual faculty members decide what individual work is to be required of PIRG interns, and faculty members award grades to the students at the conclusions of their internships (Tr. VII, 157-59; Tr. VIII, 44). PIRG staff members communicate with the supervising faculty members in order to inform the faculty of the activities of their students who are working with PIRG (Tr. VII, 162-63). PIRG staff members meet with PIRG interns on at least a weekly basis and provide faculty members with evaluations of the students' work at PIRG (Tr. IX, 24).
D. The Scope of PIRG's Activities
31. PIRG's goals are as follows:
a. to engage in non-partisan analysis, study and research of such issues as urban revitalization, consumer protection, resource planning, urban and rural occupational safety and labor conditions, protection of natural areas and environmental quality, racial and sexual discrimination, landlord-tenant relations, delivery of health care and similar matters of urgent or long-range concern to the general welfare of the people of the State of New Jersey.
b. to make available to the public at all times a full and fair exposition of the pertinent facts and results of such non-partisan analysis, study and research so that citizens may form independent conclusions beneficial to the community.