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HOTEL & RESTAURANT EMPLES. INTL. UNION LOCAL 54 V.

March 22, 1982

HOTEL AND RESTAURANT EMPLOYEES AND BARTENDERS INTERNATIONAL UNION LOCAL 54 and Frank Gerace, Plaintiffs,
v.
Martin DANZINGER, Acting Chairman, Donald Thomas, Commissioner, Madeline McWhinney, Commissioner, Carl Zeitz, Commissioner, Casino Control Commission and G. Michael Brown, Director, Department of Law and Public Safety, Division of Gaming Enforcement and Department of Law and Public Safety, Division of Gaming Enforcement and Thomas H. Kean, Governor, Defendants



The opinion of the court was delivered by: BROTMAN

New Jersey's Casino Control Act, L.1977, c. 110, § 1 et seq., as amended by L.1978, c. 7, § 1 et seq., N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-1 et seq. (West Supp.1981) (hereinafter the "Act"), establishes the conditions under which the nascent casino gambling industry in Atlantic City, New Jersey, is to be regulated. Section 93 of the Act, N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-93 (West Supp.1981), prohibits labor organizations representing employees of casinos and casino hotels from collecting dues from those employees, or from administering pension and welfare funds, unless the union has registered with the Casino Control Commission and the union's officers, agents and key employees have met certain qualifications delineated in § 86 of the Act. N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-86 (West Supp.1981). (Portions of the Casino Control Act are set forth in the Appendix to this opinion.)

 I. BACKGROUND

 Pursuant to the power granted it by the Constitution of the State of New Jersey, N.J.Stat.Ann.Const. Article 4, § 7, P 2 D (West Supp.1981), the New Jersey Legislature enacted the Casino Control Act, supra, in 1977, establishing the conditions under which casino gambling in Atlantic City would be conducted and controlled. The Act establishes the Casino Control Commission in the Department of Treasury, N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-5 (West Supp.1981), and the Division of Gaming Enforcement in the Department of Law and Public Safety. N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-55 (West Supp.1981). The Casino Control Commission is charged with the duties of passing on applications for licenses, N.J.Stat.Ann. §§ 5:12-63 and -64 (West Supp.1981), and the Division of Gaming Enforcement is empowered to investigate the qualifications of applicants for licenses, and to present its views on such applications to the Commission. N.J.Stat.Ann. §§ 5:12-76 through -79 (West Supp.1981).

 In connection with the development of casino gambling in Atlantic City, the Legislature has found and declared seventeen aspects of "the public policy of this State," and has listed them in § 1 of the Act. N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-1 b (West Supp.1981). It is in consonance with these aspects of public policy that the Act is likely to be enforced. New Jersey Builders Owners and Managers Association v. Blair, 60 N.J. 330, 338, 288 A.2d 855 (1972). The ones which are most pertinent to this court's inquiry are as follows:

 
(6) An integral and essential element of the regulation and control of such casino facilities by the State rests in the public confidence and trust in the credibility and integrity of the regulatory process and of casino operations. To further such public confidence and trust, the regulatory provisions of this act are designed to extend strict State regulation to all persons, locations, practices and associations related to the operation of licensed casino enterprises and all related service industries as herein provided. In addition, licensure of a limited number of casino establishments, with the comprehensive law-enforcement supervision attendant thereto, is further designed to contribute to the public confidence and trust in the efficacy and integrity of the regulatory process.
 
(7) Legalized casino gaming in New Jersey can attain, maintain and retain integrity, public confidence and trust, and remain compatible with the general public interest only under such a system of control and regulation as insures, so far as practicable, the exclusion from participation therein of persons with known criminal records, habits or associations, and the exclusion or removal from any positions of authority or responsibility within casino gaming operations and establishments of any persons known to be so deficient in business probity, ability or experience, either generally or with specific reference to gaming, as to create or enhance the dangers of unsound, unfair or illegal practices, methods and activities in the conduct of gaming or the carrying on of the business and financial arrangements incident thereto.
 
(9) Since casino operations are especially sensitive and in need of public control and supervision, and since it is vital to the interests of the State to prevent entry, directly or indirectly, into such operations or the ancillary industries regulated by this act of persons who have pursued economic gains in an occupational manner or context which are in violation of the criminal or civil public policies of this State, the regulatory and investigatory powers and duties shall be exercised to the fullest extent consistent with law to avoid entry of such persons into the casino operations or the ancillary industries regulated by this act.
 
(13) It is in the public interest that the institution of licensed casino establishments in New Jersey be strictly regulated and controlled pursuant to the above findings and pursuant to the provisions of this act, which provisions are designed to engender and maintain public confidence and trust in regulation of the licensed enterprises, to provide an effective method of rebuilding and redeveloping existing facilities and of encouraging new capital investment in Atlantic City, and to provide a meaningful and permanent contribution to the economic viability of the resort, convention, and tourist industry of New Jersey.
 
(15) Continuity and stability in casino gaming operations cannot be achieved at the risk of permitting persons with unacceptable backgrounds and records of behavior to control casino gaming operations contrary to the vital law enforcement interest of the State.

 N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-1 b (West Supp.1981).

 These declarations reveal a serious concern with the possibility that casino gambling in Atlantic City-along with the governmental entities which are bound to control it-has the potential to serve as a vehicle for the violence, extortion and lawlessness which have plagued gaming industries in other contexts. The Legislature had before it many studies on the possibilities for corruption and crime which might have been created by the introduction of legalized gaming. E.g., Second Interim Report of the New Jersey Governor's Staff Policy Group on Casino Gambling (Fed. 17, 1977); Report and Recommendations by the State Commission of Investigation (April 1977). The reports were based on studies of gaming industries around the world and in other states. See Second Interim Report of the Staff Policy Group, supra. Numerous public hearings on the matter were also held. Certainly it was no puritanical aversion to games of chances which brought the Legislature to the conclusion that strict control over all aspects of the new industry would be necessary to prevent it from befouling all that it touched and all that touched it. It is unquestioned that the history of legalized gambling in all of its forms demonstrates that it is extraordinarily susceptible to control and abuse by criminals employing methods of violence and bribery. Id.; National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, The Development of the Law of Gambling: 1776-1976 (1977). The roots of corruption, spread far enough, can undermine the very foundations of public confidence in government itself, and the recitations of public policy in the Act show an awareness of this. *fn1" Accordingly, a comprehensive licensing system was established, which extended not only to those who were to own, manage and be employed by casinos, but also to ancillary services, such as the supplying of gaming devices. N.J.Stat.Ann. §§ 5:12-80 through -95.11 (West Supp.1981).

 
few better vehicles utilized by organized crime to gain a stranglehold on an entire industry than labor racketeering. Organized crime control of certain unions often requires the legitimate businessmen who employ the services of the union members to pay extra homage to the representatives of the underworld. Moreover the ready source of cash which union coffers provide can be employed as financing of all sorts of legitimate or illicit ventures.

 Report and Recommendations, supra, at 2. It can not be doubted that the large number of unrecorded transactions which are associated with gambling can multiply the effects of the phenomenon described by the Commission of Investigation. In enacting the Racketeer Influence and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act, 84 Stat. 941, 18 U.S.C.A. §§ 1961 et seq. (West Supp.1981), in 1970, Congress recognized the explosiveness of the combination of labor racketeering and gambling by declaring:

 
[Organized] crime derives a major portion of its power through money obtained from such illegal endeavors as syndicated gambling, loan sharking, the theft and fencing of property, the importation and distribution of narcotics and other dangerous drugs, and other forms of social exploitations; ... this money and power are increasingly used to infiltrate and corrupt legitimate business and labor unions....

 Pub.L. 91-452, § 1, reprinted following 18 U.S.C.A. § 1961 (West Supp.1981).

 Similar to the licensing provisions discussed above is § 93 of the Act, which requires that "(e)ach labor organization, union or affiliate seeking to represent employees licensed under this act and employed by a casino hotel or a casino licensee shall register with the commission annually...." N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-93 a (West Supp.1981). Although the registration requirement differs in some respects from the licensing requirement which applies to casino service industries, N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-92 (West Supp.1981), or casino hotel employees, N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-91 (West Supp.1981), its effect is similar to the licensing requirement. Section 93 goes on to state that officers, agents and principal employees of the labor organization, union or affiliate required to register must pass muster under § 86 of the Act, which lists criteria for disqualification of applicants for licenses. N.J.Stat.Ann. §§ 5:12-86 and 93 b (West Supp.1981). Failure of key employees of such a union to meet the standards of § 86 does not bar the union from acting as the collective bargaining representative of the licensed employees, but it does visit certain other restrictions on the union; i.e., the union is forbidden to receive any dues from any licensed casino employee, and is also forbidden to "administer any pension or welfare funds." N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-93 b (West Supp.1981). As with hotel employee licenses, N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-91 e (West Supp.1981), the Casino Control Commission is given discretion to "waive any disqualification criteria (of § 86) consistent with the public policy of this act and upon a finding that the interests of justice so require." N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-93 b (West Supp.1981).

 No one involved in these proceedings has argued that it was irrational for the Legislature to decide to subject representatives of licensed employees to some form of regulation and control. The wisdom of the legislation is not here at issue. The question is a narrower one of the scope within which the state's regulation of such unions is permitted to operate by the Constitution, the breadth of the inquiries which may be made, and the nature of the sanctions which may be applied.

 We start with the premise that the state's regulation of gambling is subject to constitutional limitations. Bally Manufacturing Corp. v. Casino Control Commission, 534 F. Supp. 1213, 1220 (D.N.J.1982); Marshall v. Sawyer, 301 F.2d 639 (9th Cir. 1962). The argument of the Division of Gaming Enforcement that constitutional scrutiny of the regulations at issue is barred by the Tenth Amendment *fn2" is weakly supported. In State v. Rosenthal, 93 Nev. 36, 559 P.2d 830, appeal dismissed, 434 U.S. 803, 98 S. Ct. 32, 54 L. Ed. 2d 61 (1977), it was stated that this view was unnecessary to the decision of the case. Other courts have proceeded on the assumption that Congress may regulate gambling insofar as it affects the flow of interstate commerce, as it does here, and in so doing may preempt the power of the states to do the same. See Marshall v. Sawyer, supra, 301 F.2d at 649 n.3 (Pope, J., dissenting). It was not many years ago that Congress had prevented the states from running their own lotteries as they saw fit. Development of the Law of Gambling, 1776-1976, supra, at 539 et seq. The defendants' incantation of the word "gambling" does not prevent the application of federal constitutional standards to the actions of the state.

 II. FINDINGS OF FACT

 The facts essential to the determination of the motion are as follows:

 1. Plaintiff Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union Local 54 is an unincorporated labor organization within the meaning of § 2(5) of the National Labor Relations Act, as amended, infra, representing, inter alia, about 8,000 licensed employees of the casinos and casino hotels in Atlantic City, New Jersey, in collective bargaining and other matters affecting employer-employee relations. Plaintiff Frank Gerace is president of Local 54.

 2. Frank Gerace is a trustee of the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union Pension Fund, as well as the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union Health & Welfare Fund. Local 54, through its officers, participates in the operation of these funds, both of which are employee benefit plans within the meaning of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, infra. (Plaintiffs' Exhibit 5).

 3. Local 54 filed its annual registration statement as required by the Casino Control Act in 1978. On May 12, 1981, the defendant Division of Gaming Enforcement, following its investigation of the applicant, stated its objections to the application. (Plaintiffs' Exhibit 2).

 4. The Casino Control Commission thereupon ordered that hearings on the subject of Local 54's registration commence on September 9, 1981. (Affidavit of Frank Gerace, August 17, 1981, P 2; Defendants' Exhibit 3).

 5. Local 54 has posed to the Casino Control Commission certain of its objections to the registration requirement, the conduct of its officers being the subject of a hearing, and to the possibility that the sanctions of § 93 of the Casino Control Act may be imposed. (Plaintiffs' Exhibit 4). The Commission has held that it is without jurisdiction to reach the constitutional objections to § 93. (Plaintiffs' Exhibit 4).

 6. The Casino Control Commission has adjourned the hearing scheduled for September 9, 1981, pending determination of the instant motion for preliminary relief. (Defendants' Exhibit 3).

 III. JURISDICTION

 Having raised the question of whether the Casino Control Act is preempted by federal statutes regulating commerce, plaintiffs have properly involved 28 U.S.C.A. § 1331 (West Supp.1981) and 28 U.S.C.A. § 1337 (West Supp.1981) as sources for this court's jurisdiction. Cab Operating Corp. v. City of New York, 243 F. Supp. 550, 552 (S.D.N.Y.1965). The allegations concerning denial of rights granted by the First and Fourteenth Amendments support our jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C.A. § 1343 (West Supp.1981).

 Defendants argue that we should apply the principle of abstention and decline to exercise our jurisdiction in this case. *fn3" We are told that under the doctrine of Younger v. Harris, 401 U.S. 37, 91 S. Ct. 746, 27 L. Ed. 2d 669 (1971), we may not interfere with the state's administrative hearings by enjoining them. Additionally, the defendants invoke the doctrine of Burford v. Sun Oil Co., 319 U.S. 315, 63 S. Ct. 1098, 87 L. Ed. 1424 (1943), and Alabama Public Service Commission v. Southern Railway, 341 U.S. 341, 71 S. Ct. 762, 95 L. Ed. 1002 (1950). They argue that Burford abstention is required because this case presents complex questions of state law which relate to matters of substantial public import, the resolution of which might be disruptive of state efforts to implement a coherent regulatory framework. The final ground for abstention is based on the argument that the questions here presented should first be brought to state tribunals, which would then have the opportunity to construe the Casino Control Act in a way which might obviate the necessity for a decision of the federal constitutional questions or substantially modify the constitutional issue. This argument is based on Railroad Commission of Texas v. Pullman Co., 312 U.S. 496, 61 S. Ct. 643, 85 L. Ed. 971 (1941). See generally, 1A, Pt. 2 Moore's Federal Practice, P 0.203 et seq. (2d Ed.1981).

 The Younger doctrine does not apply to this case. The rule which restricts the federal courts' power to enjoin state proceedings is applicable only to those proceedings which are initiated by the state. Johnson v. Kelly, 583 F.2d 1242, 1247, 1249 (3rd Cir. 1978); Bally Manufacturing Corp. v. Casino Control Commission, 534 F. Supp. 1213, 1218-20 (D.N.J.1982); Santiago v. City of Philadelphia, 435 F. Supp. 136, 145 (E.D.Pa.1977). It is recognized that on this motion the plaintiffs seek to restrain the hearings which were, in fact, scheduled at the instance of the Casino Control Commission. Nevertheless, the entire registration procedure is one which is initiated by the applicant, and it is the validity of the entire procedure which is in question in this case.

 Nor is the Burford doctrine applicable to this case. This court's recent opinion in Bally Manufacturing Corp. v. Casino Control Commission, supra, at 1222-23 explained why Burford was inapplicable in a similar case. While there are some differences between the procedural postures of that case and the one at hand, it remains true that the questions of state law are neither so technical nor so complex as to require abstention. We do not think that constitutional scrutiny, which inevitably must be applied to the statute, would so seriously disrupt the functioning of the state's policies as to counsel more delay of that scrutiny than would otherwise be required.

 The most forceful arguments counseling abstention emanate from the line of cases beginning with Pullman, supra. Our inquiry under Pullman is to determine whether the federal issues may be avoided as a result of a state court's construction of the Casino Control Act. To a large extent the decision on whether to abstain depends on the nature of the federal question presented. Where several federal questions are presented, as here, some of the questions may be avoidable and others unavoidable. The court must consider the applicability of the Pullman doctrine to each of the federal claims separately, and will discuss the matter more fully in connection with the discussion of the merits of each of the questions presented.

 IV. DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS OF LAW

 To prevail on a motion for preliminary injunctive relief, the moving party must show that it has a reasonable likelihood of eventual success in the litigation, that it will be irreparably injured pendente lite if the preliminary relief is not granted, that a balance of equities favors the party seeking preliminary relief, and that the public interest will not be disserved by the issuance of the preliminary injunction. Constructors Association of Western Pennsylvania v. Kreps, 573 F.2d 811, 814-15 (3rd Cir. 1978), and cases cited therein; Estate of Presley v. Russen, 513 F. Supp. 1339, 1352-53 (D.N.J.1981). The court will discuss each of the plaintiffs' claims with these standards in mind.

 A. Preemption of the Casino Control Act by Federal Labor Legislation

 The plaintiffs claim that § 93 of the Casino Control Act conflicts with Congressional enactments dealing with labor relations, including those portions of the federal statutes which are intended to guarantee to employees the right to select collective bargaining representatives of their own choosing. The possibility that Local 54 will be prevented from collecting dues and administering pension, health and welfare funds is said to create a direct impediment to effectuation of the rights of self-organization guaranteed to employees by § 7 of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, infra, 29 U.S.C.A. § 157 (West 1973). This section states that:

 
Employees shall have the right to self-organization, to form, join, or assist labor organizations, to bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing, and to engage in other concerted activities for the purpose of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection, ....

 Id.

 The Supremacy Clause of the Constitution, U.S.C.A.Const. Art. VI, cl. 2 (West 1968), provides that "This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof ... shall be the supreme Law of the Land ... any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding." Id. State provisions which conflict with federal laws are without effect. Hines v. Davidowitz, 312 U.S. 52, 61 S. Ct. 399, 85 L. Ed. 581 (1941). It was recently stated by the Supreme Court that consideration under the Supremacy Clause must start "with the basic assumption that Congress did not intend to displace state law." Maryland v. Louisiana, 451 U.S. 725, 746, 101 S. Ct. 2114, 2129, 68 L. Ed. 2d 576 (1981); see Rice v. Santa Fe Elevator Corp., 331 U.S. 218, 230, 67 S. Ct. 1146, 1152, 91 L. Ed. 1447 (1947). Congressional intent to supersede the power of a state to pass a particular regulation may be found, however, where the scheme of federal regulation is so pervasive that there is no room for state regulation in the same field, or where the state regulation may produce a result inconsistent with the objective of the federal statute. Rice v. Santa Fe Elevator Corp., supra, 331 U.S., at 230, 67 S. Ct., at 1152. A state enactment may be void to the extent that compliance with both the federal and state statutes is impossible or where the statute frustrates Congressional goals. See generally, Maryland v. Louisiana, supra, 451 U.S., at 746-47. Where preemption is the issue, "each case turns on the peculiarities and features of the federal regulatory scheme in question." City of Burbank v. Lockheed Air Terminal, 411 U.S. 624, 638, 93 S. Ct. 1854, 1862, 36 L. Ed. 2d 547 (1973) citing Hines v. Davidowitz, supra, and Huron Portland Cement Co. v. Detroit, 362 U.S. 440, 80 S. Ct. 813, 4 L. Ed. 2d 852 (1960).

 Plaintiffs argue that § 1 of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (the "NLRA" or the "Wagner Act"), 49 Stat. 449, as amended 61 Stat. 136, 29 U.S.C.A. § 151 (West 1973), along with § 2 of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 (the "Landrum-Griffin Act" or the "LMRDA"), 73 Stat. 519, 29 U.S.C.A. § 401 (West 1975), evince a Congressional intention that protection of employees' ability to choose their bargaining representatives be exclusively a federal concern, not to be interfered with by state enactments such as the one under consideration in this case. These two sections are statements of federal policy which must be considered in determining the preemptive reach of the acts. Section 1 of the Wagner Act states in part:

 29 U.S.C.A. § 151 (West 1973). In § 2 of the LMRDA Congress stated:

 
The Congress finds that, in the public interest, it continues to be the responsibility of the Federal Government to protect employees' rights to organize, choose their own representatives, bargain collectively, and otherwise engage in concerted activities for their mutual aid or protection....

 29 U.S.C.A. § 401(a) (West 1975). Of course, the more substantive portions of these enactments must also be considered.

 Section 504 of the Landrum-Griffin Act, 29 U.S.C.A. § 504 (West 1975), operates as a restraint against certain persons from acting as key employees or leaders of labor organizations, much in the same way as does § 93 of the Casino Control Act, when applied in conjunction with § 86 of the Act. Section 504 bars persons convicted of certain enumerated crimes from serving in such positions for five years following their convictions or the end of their imprisonment unless certain prerequisites relating to pardon or parole have been met. The Casino Control Act lists more crimes than are listed in § 504, and extends the disability to ten years. See N.J.Stat.Ann. § 5:12-86c(1), (2), (3), (4) (West Supp.1981). It is argued that the Congressional policy statements quoted above should lead us to conclude that the bars erected by § 504 may only be enforced in the manner provided by the federal enactment. Alternatively, plaintiffs state that even if the states may establish their own mechanisms for enforcing provisions similar to § 504, the enumeration of disabilities in § 504 is exclusive, and may not be extended by state laws such as the Casino Control Act.

 The merits of plaintiffs' argument that application of the Casino Control Act to them is barred by the LMRDA, including § 504 and § 1, supra, are easily disposed of by reference to DeVeau v. Braisted, 363 U.S. 144, 80 S. Ct. 1146, 4 L. Ed. 2d 1109 (1960). In that case the Supreme Court considered whether § 8 of the New York Waterfront Commission Act of 1953 was preempted by the NLRA and the Landrum-Griffin Act. The act there examined was enacted pursuant to a bistate compact approved by Congress in 1953 under Article I, § 10 of the Constitution, the Compact Clause. U.S.C.A.Const. Art. I, § 10, cl. 3 (West 1968). It established a system for licensing employees on the waterfront of the Port of New York. DeVeau v. Braisted, supra, at 147-51, 80 S. Ct. at 1148-50. Section 8 thereof provided that no person could collect dues from licensed waterfront employees on behalf of any labor organization if any officers or agents of the labor organization had ever been convicted of any felony, unless those officers or agents had been pardoned or paroled. DeVeau, supra, at 145, 80 S. Ct. at 1147. Like the Casino Control Act, the legislation under attack in DeVeau v. Braisted was more comprehensive in its restriction on employees' freedom to choose bargaining representatives than § 504 of the LMRDA. In explaining why the Waterfront Commission Act was not preempted by the LMRDA, the Court, in an opinion by Mr. Justice Frankfurter, stated:

 
The fact that Congress itself has ... imposed the same type of restriction upon employees' freedom to choose bargaining representatives as New York seeks to impose through § 8, namely, disqualification of ex-felons for union office, is surely evidence that Congress does not view such a restriction as incompatible with its labor policies. Appellant, however, argues that any state disablement from holding union office on account of a prior felony conviction, such as § 8, which has terms at variance with § 504(a), is impliedly barred by it. Just the opposite conclusion is indicated by the 1959 Act, which reflects congressional awareness of the problems of pre-emption in the area of labor legislation, and which did not leave the solution of questions of pre-emption to inference. When Congress meant pre-emption to flow from the 1959 Act it expressly so provided. Sections 205(c) and 403, set out in the margin, *fn2" are express provisions excluding the operation of state law, supplementing provisions for new federal regulation. No such pre-emption provision was provided in connection with § 504(a). That alone is sufficient reason for not deciding that § 504(a) pre-empts § 8 of the Waterfront Commission Act. In addition, two sections of the 1959 Act, both relevant to this case, affirmatively preserve the operation of state laws. That § 504(a) was not to restrict state criminal law enforcement regarding the felonies there enumerated as federal bars to union office is provided by § 604 of the 1959 Act: "Nothing in this Act shall be construed to impair or diminish the authority of any State to enact and enforce general criminal laws with respect to (the same group of serious felonies, with the exception of exclusively federal violations, which are listed in § 504(a) )." And to make the matter conclusive, § 603(a) is an express disclaimer of pre-emption of state laws regulating the responsibilities of union officials, except where such pre-emption is expressly provided in the 1959 Act. Section 603(a) provides: "Except as explicitly provided to the contrary, nothing in this Act shall reduce or limit the responsibilities of any labor organization or any officer, agent, shop steward, or other representative of a labor organization ... under the laws of any State ...." In view of this explicit and elaborate treatment of pre-emption in the 1959 Act, no inference can possibly arise that § 8 is impliedly pre-empted by § 504(a).

 Id., at 156-57, 80 S. Ct. at 1152-53.

 The opinion of Mr. Justice Brennan is to the very same effect: "(T)he Labor-Management Reporting & Disclosure Act of 1959 explicitly provides that it shall not displace such legislation of the States." Id., at 160-61, 80 S. Ct. at 1154-55. It is to be noted that the Court's analysis of the Waterfront Commission Act's relationship to the LMRDA does not in any way turn on the circumstance that Congress had approved the bistate compact dealing with labor corruption on the piers. The Court considered Congressional approval of the compact only insofar as it may have diminished the preemptive reach of the Wagner Act. Id., at 151-55, 80 S. Ct. at 1150-52. Therefore, plaintiffs' argument that DeVeau must be confined to situations where Congress has explicitly made exceptions to the asserted preemptive effect of the Landrum-Griffin Act is insupportable. Justice Frankfurter's reading of the history and purpose of the LMRDA has been subject to some criticism, see DeVeau, supra, at 161-65, 80 S. Ct. at 1155-58 (Douglas, J., dissenting); Note, State Regulation of Casino Gambling: Constitutional Limitations and Federal Labor Law Preemption, 49 Fordham L.Rev. 1038, 1053-56 (1981), but it is not subject to question by this court. Spindel v. Spindel, 283 F. Supp. 797, 802 (E.D.N.Y.1968). We are required to hold that plaintiffs are not likely to succeed on the merits of their claim that the Casino Control Act is preempted by the LMRDA.

 Plaintiffs' claim that the Casino Control Act is preempted by the NLRA is considerably more problematic. The starting point for this argument is Hill v. Florida, 325 U.S. 538, 325 U.S. 538, 65 S. Ct. 1373, 89 L. Ed. 1782 (1945). In that case, the Court upheld a challenge to a state law which required each labor union operating in the state to file a written report, accompanied by a filing fee of $ 1.00, with Florida's Secretary of State listing the names and addresses of its officers. The law further prohibited any person from acting as a business agent for any union unless the person were granted a license by the State. A business agent licensee was required to pay a $ 1.00 license fee, to show that he was a person of good moral character, and to show that he had not been convicted of a felony. Neither the union nor its business agent had complied with the registration requirement, and they had been enjoined from operating as such by the Florida courts. Id., at 539-41, 65 S. Ct. at 1374.

 The Court reversed the decree of the Supreme Court of Florida affirming the lower court's decree granting injunctive relief. It was held:

 
The requirement as to the filing of information and the payment of a $ 1.00 annual fee does not, in and of itself, conflict with the Federal Act. But for failure to comply, the union has been enjoined from functioning as a labor union.... It is the sanction here imposed, and not the duty to report, which brings about a situation inconsistent with the federally protected process of collective bargaining.

 Id., at 543, 65 S. Ct. at 1375.

 This passage reveals that Hill v. Florida should be considered in light of the unique posture of that case. In our own case, neither the union nor its officers have been enjoined from any of their activities. During the pendency of this litigation, and during the pendency of the hearings which they seek to have enjoined, plaintiffs will continue to represent casino employees and others, operating as they have in the past. The significance of the difference between the situation presented here and the one presented in Hill v. Florida is borne out by Alabama State Federation of Labor v. McAdory, 325 U.S. 450, 65 S. Ct. 1384, 89 L. Ed. 1725 (1945), decided on the same day as Hill. In that case a similar statute was challenged by persons who had neither registered nor been enjoined. The Court declined to rule on the constitutionality of the statute there in question, saying:

 
... (W)e cannot assume that the failure to file reports will result in the exclusion of petitioners, or any of them, from functioning in the state, or visit any consequences upon them other than the penalty for failure to file. We therefore have no question before us of a statute which has been construed to operate either by its penal sanctions or by the aid of injunction to prevent petitioners, or any of them, from functioning within the state for noncompliance with sec. 7 (of the state enactment). Compare Hill v. Florida, 325 U.S. 538 (65 S. Ct. 1373, 89 L. Ed. 1782) (1945). Nor can we say in the absence of any showing to the contrary that the filing of information returns will impose such burdens on any of petitioners as to interfere with the performance of their functions under the National Labor Relations Act in cases where that Act is applicable....
 
We can be asked to condemn a state statute as in conflict with national legislation only if the conflict is clearly shown, Allen-Bradley Local v. Wisconsin Employment Relations Board, 315 U.S. 740, 749 (62 S. Ct. 820, 875, 86 L. Ed. 1154) (1942); Townsend v. Yeomans, 301 U.S. 441, 454 (57 S. Ct. 842, 848, 81 L. Ed. 1210) (1937), and cases cited, and only by those who show that they are adversely affected by the alleged conflict with national power. Each of the contentions which petitioners make with respect to the conflict of sec. 7 and 16 (of the state enactment) with the National Labor Relations Act could readily be adjudicated and disposed of in an adversary suit drawing in question their validity as applied to specific states of fact, in which respondents could both challenge the facts and the applicability to them of the statute.

 Id., at 466, 65 S. Ct. at 1392 (citations recast). Our case is similar to Alabama State Federation of Labor v. McAdory, supra, because there is considerable doubt as to whether plaintiffs will ever be enjoined from or otherwise interfered with in carrying out their union functions. The inquiry into the qualifications of the union and its leaders may not be considered to visit ...


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