On appeal from the Civil Service Commission.
Matthews, Pressler and Petrella. The opinion of the court was delivered by Pressler, J.A.D.
The question raised by this appeal is whether a municipal police officer is subject to disciplinary sanction for failure to cooperate in a departmental investigation of assumed criminal activity where he is a target of the investigation and has not been offered use immunity in respect of any subsequent criminal proceedings which might be brought against him. The Civil Service Commission answered this question negatively and we agree.
Plaintiff Robert Banca is a police officer employed by defendant Town of Phillipsburg, whose police department is subject to Civil Service. In the spring of 1979 there was a theft from the police department property room of $130 in cash and a group of pornographic films which had been seized as evidence. Suspicion ultimately focused on Banca, who, on April 12, 1979, was ordered by Lieutenant Ruch, then acting head of the police department, to report to headquarters at 8:30 that evening
although he was then home on sick leave. On his arrival at headquarters he was directed to the detective bureau. Ruch would not permit Banca's brother, who had accompanied him to headquarters because of his illness, to remain with him but he did allow Banca's P.B.A. delegate to be present during the interrogation, which was conducted by Ruch and one of the department's detectives who was conducting the investigation. Banca was told that he was the primary suspect in the investigation, given Miranda warnings, and asked to discuss the matter. He was not, however, told that failure to make a statement would result in disciplinary proceedings against him or that immunity would be afforded him preventing use in any subsequent criminal proceeding of any self-incriminating statement he might make.
Upon Banca's refusal to give any statement to the interrogating officers, he was forthwith placed under suspension and ordered to return to headquarters the following Monday. At that time he was again asked to make a statement and once again declined to do so, this time "on advice of counsel." He was then handed a preliminary notice of disciplinary proceedings. The gravamen of the charge made against Banca was his violation of a local departmental regulation requiring all police officers "to answer questions or render material and relevant statements in a department investigation when such questions and statements are directly related to job responsibilities."
The charge was sustained following a disciplinary hearing conducted by the town manager, who imposed the penalty of a five-month suspension. Banca appealed to the Civil Service Commission and following a hearing the administrative law judge recommended dismissal of the charges on the ground that Banca could not be disciplined for failure to cooperate in a departmental investigation of a crime where he was a target without having been afforded use immunity. The Civil Service Commission adopted that recommendation and the town appeals. [181 NJSuper Page 113] The public employee's constitutional right not to incriminate himself, vouchsafed him by the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments, inevitably collides with the need of the public employer, in the public interest and as a matter of the public trust, to require him to account for his conduct in public office. That conflict has been resolved by the United States Supreme Court in an evolutionary series of decisions which developed the constitutional doctrine that a public employee is not subject to disciplinary sanction solely by reason of his exercise of his privilege against self-incrimination during the course of official interrogation unless he has first been accorded the protection of use immunity barring admission in a subsequent criminal proceeding of any self-incriminating statement he may make. The conceptual basis of the doctrine is the recognition that when a public employee makes a self-incriminatory statement in response to a threat of discharge, that statement must necessarily be regarded as coerced and, therefore, as secured in violation of the employee's constitutional privilege not to incriminate himself. If, however, he is protected from the normal consequences of a self-incriminatory statement, that is, if the statement may not be used against him in a subsequent criminal proceeding, then the choice he must make between loss of his employment and the giving of the statement, however much a Hobson's choice it may be, does not offend his constitutional privilege. The offer, therefore, of use immunity when the statement is solicited is constitutionally prerequisite to the imposition of the disciplinary sanction for failing to give it. See Garrity v. New Jersey , 385 U.S. 493, 87 S. Ct. 616, 17 L. Ed. 2d 562 (1967); Gardner v. Broderick , 392 U.S. 273, 88 S. Ct. 1913, 20 L. Ed. 2d 1082 (1968); Uniformed Sanitation Men Ass'n v. Commissioner (Sanitation Men I) , 392 U.S. 280, 88 S. Ct. 1917, 20 L. Ed. 2d 1089 (1968); Uniformed S.M. Ass'n, Inc. v. Commissioner of S. of N.Y. (Sanitation Men II) , 426 F.2d 619 (2 Cir. 1970), cert. den. 406 U.S. 961, 92 S. Ct. 2055, 32 L. Ed. 2d 349 (1972); Lefkowitz v. Turley , 414 U.S. 70, 94 S. Ct. 316, 38 L. Ed. 2d 274 (1973). Cf.
Spevack v. Klein , 385 U.S. 511, 87 S. Ct. 625, 17 L. Ed. 2d 574 (1967).
New Jersey responded to these cases by its 1970 adoption of N.J.S.A. 2A:81-17.2a1-17.2a5, inclusive, and the 1975 amendment of N.J.S.A. 2A:81-17.2a2. This legislation, in its present form, requires a public employee, despite his claim of privilege against self-incrimination but upon the grant of use immunity, to appear and testify before any court, grand jury or the State Commission of Investigation regarding matters directly related to the conduct of his office. Should he refuse to do so under these circumstances, whether or not he is a target of a criminal investigation, he is subject to removal from office provided he has first been advised that such removal may be a consequence of his refusal. See, generally, State v. Vinegra , 73 N.J. 484 (1977).
If we were dealing here with a proceeding covered by the act, its provisions would clearly apply, precluding imposition of a disciplinary sanction based solely on plaintiff's refusal to give a statement. Contrary to the statutory prerequisites, he was not advised that his refusal could result in such sanctions. More egregiously, not only was he not expressly offered use immunity but, to the contrary, he was given the erroneous warning that what he did say could be used against him.
The question, then, is whether the constitutional concerns underpinning the Garrity line of cases require the same result here even though the New Jersey statute does not address the interrogational situation here involved. We are convinced that they do since the same concerns are implicated whether the solicited statement is to be given under oath in a judicial or judicial-type of proceeding or not under oath in an official interdepartmental investigation. Thus, as the Supreme Court reaffirmed in Lefkowitz v. Turley, supra , 414 U.S. at 77, 94 S. Ct. at 322, the Fifth Amendment "not only ...