On review of an order of the Superior Court, Law Division, Union County, transferring the cause to this court.
Matthews, Pressler and Petrella.
In November 1980 defendant was issued a summons for driving in a High Occupancy Vehicle (H.O.V.) lane on the Garden State Parkway without the minimum of three passengers in his car then required by N.J.A.C. 16:30-3.6. He was charged with violating N.J.S.A. 39:4-81 which provides that "[t]he driver of every vehicle . . . shall obey the instructions of any official traffic control device applicable thereto . . . ."
Prior to the commencement of trial in the municipal court, defendant moved for dismissal of the complaint pursuant to R. 7:4-2(e), contending that N.J.A.C. 16:30-3.6 was invalid. R. 7:4-2(e), in pertinent part, incorporates R. 3:10-3, making its
provisions applicable to the municipal court. R. 3:10-3 reads in full as follows:
The defense that the indictment or accusation fails to charge an offense and the defense that the charge is based on a statute or regulation promulgated pursuant to statute which is unconstitutional or invalid in whole or in part may only be raised by motion either before trial or within 10 days after a verdict of guilty or within such further time as the court may fix during such 10-day period, or on appeal. Such defenses shall not be considered during trial.
The municipal court judge concurred in various of defendant's specific challenges to the substantive and procedural validity of the regulation and acquitted defendant of the charge based on his conclusion that the regulation was indeed defective.
The State appealed to the Law Division pursuant to R. 3:23, and defendant countered by moving for dismissal of the appeal on double jeopardy grounds. The Law Division's denial of that motion was clearly correct. See State v. Barnes , 84 N.J. 362 (1980); State v. McKelvey , 142 N.J. Super. 259 (App.Div.1976); Paramus v. Martin Paint , 128 N.J. Super. 138 (App.Div.1974); State v. Damiano , 142 N.J. Super. 457 (Cty.Ct.1976). The Law Division was, however, of the further view that the issue before it on the de novo appeal, since it implicated the validity of a regulation of a state administrative agency, was within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Appellate Division pursuant to R. 2:2-3(a)(2). Consequently, it on its own motion transferred the matter to this court under R. 1:13-4. Despite the State's argument now addressed to us in support of that transfer order, we are persuaded that the Law Division erred in its conclusion that it lacked jurisdiction over this controversy pursuant to R. 3:23. Accordingly, we remand to the Law Division for disposition on the merits.
The Law Division apparently overlooked the authority of the rules of court above cited, which expressly recognizes the right and opportunity of a defendant in a criminal or quasi -criminal matter to attack, by way of defense to the charge and
in the court in which the charge is pending, the validity of the regulation upon which the charge is based. We are further satisfied, contrary to the view of the Law Division, that such a collateral attack on the validity of a regulation in the context of a criminal or quasi -criminal proceeding does not convert the proceeding into an action in lieu of prerogative writs entertainable only by this court.
It is, first, axiomatic that a conviction of a criminal or quasi -criminal charge is sustainable only if the statute, regulation or ordinance upon which the charge is based is valid. Hence, a defendant has an essential and fundamental right to interpose a defense based on the invalidity of the legislative or quasi -legislative act upon which the prosecution is predicated. The notion that he cannot do so in the criminal or quasi -criminal proceeding itself constitutes a basic jurisprudential misapprehension. The analogy to the trial court's perception here would be the requirement, in a criminal prosecution in which the underlying statute is challenged as unconstitutional, that the cause be transferred to the civil calendar to be there ...