The opinion of the court was delivered by: BIUNNO
In this diversity jurisdiction suit, the plaintiff, a citizen of Texas, originally sued 10 pharmaceutical manufacturers for alleged personal injury claimed to have been sustained as the result of manufacturing and marketing medications within a class generally labelled as "corticosteroids" indicated for the treatment of asthma, without adequate warnings that prolonged use would result in suppressing and atrophy of the normal activity of the adrenal glands, and in dependence on the medication as a consequence, as well as in adverse side effects.
The complaint asserts that for some 25 years before its filing in 1975 (i.e., over the period from about 1950), plaintiff had ingested such medications by way of treatment for asthma, while under the care of a number of different physicians, hospitals and the like, in Texas; that as a consequence had suffered atrophy of adrenal activity, had become dependent on the medication, and had suffered side effects. The complaint is silent on the question whether the alleged medication was effective in the treatment of the asthmatic condition, or on the question whether alternative medications of some other kind were in existence and available for effective treatment or whether, for the degree and nature of the ailment as it existed, the medications involved were the only ones capable of providing effective treatment despite their disadvantages.
As reference to any standard medical text will disclose, asthma is a condition which may be acute or chronic, or a combination of the two, in which the bronchi or air passages in the lungs become constricted, thereby reducing the ventilation of the highly divided inner surfaces of the lungs and as a consequence the expiration of carbon dioxide in exchange for oxygen from the air is reduced. The consequence, in effect, is a kind of partial asphyxiation which would tend to increase heart action and can lead to cardiac failure in severe cases.
Most of the defendants, in their answers, asserted special or separate defenses to the effect that the claim was grounded on the so-called "enterprise" theory, seeking to hold all the defendants liable as joint and several tortfeasors merely because they had manufactured and marketed medications of the general class which included whatever medications plaintiff had ingested, and without proof that the product of any one or more of the defendants had actually reached and had been ingested by plaintiff over the 25 year period or, if they had, for what part of the period.
At an earlier stage of the case and before discovery was complete, plaintiff moved to strike the defenses under F.R.Civ.P. 12(f), and defendant A.H. Robins Co. moved for summary judgment. After hearing on both motions Judge Whipple, by opinion dated September 11, 1976, denied both motions.
Following the completion of discovery, a pretrial order was entered by Magistrate Hunt in late 1979, in which provision was made for plaintiff to bring on a motion for summary judgment under F.R.Civ.P. 56 on the same issue previously advanced under Rule 12(f).
One defendant (Abbott Laboratories) had previously been taken out of the case on a voluntary dismissal. The remaining defendants are Merck, Schering, Organon, Squibb, Lederle and Pfizer (represented by the same attorneys), Parke-Davis, A.H. Robins, and Upjohn. All of the defendants, either by formal motion in writing or by oral joinder in the motions for the others, moved for summary judgment against plaintiff.
In the pretrial order, in the briefs, and in the discovery materials, plaintiff asserts that there is no proof available for trial to establish which product of which defendant was prescribed or administered by a particular hospital or physician at a given period of time. In response to interrogatories, plaintiff has provided the names of 30 physicians consulted during various periods, 14 being in Galveston, 2 in Houston, 1 in San Antonio, 2 in El Paso (all these being Texas), one in Sun City, Ariz., 1 in Phoenix, Ariz., 2 in Boston and 7 in Denver, Colo. A total of 16 hospitalization periods are listed (some being intermittent and quite a few overlapping in time), in Galveston, Houston and El Paso, Texas; Phoenix, Arizona; Boston, Mass; Denver, Colo; and the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. (no physicians are listed from Rochester). Finally, a total of 19 pharmacies are listed for various periods (some overlapping) in Galveston, Houston, El Paso, and Denver at which it is said that corticosteroids were purchased. However, plaintiff claimed inability to identify the specific medication prescribed, administered or purchased through any of these sources.
There is no dispute that all medications of the general class are lawfully obtainable only by prescription. They are not "over-the-counter" drugs. Plaintiff also says that the labels on each vial of medication did not specify the brand name with which it was filled, nor does she know what brand was prescribed and used during hospital treatment.
Two physicians who treated plaintiff have testified on deposition that plaintiff habitually overdosed herself by taking more of the medication at more frequent intervals than the instructions given called for, that this was true not only of asthma medications but of others as well, such as percodan, which contains oxycodone (a derivative of cocaine), which can be habit forming. Thus, no reasonably reliable list of the various medications taken by plaintiff, whether they were corticosteroids or something else, was available.
She was described by one treating physician as a "drug abuser", who not only took more medication of all kinds than prescribed, but also admitted that her father had obtained corticosteroid medications for her on the "black market" at a time when they had not been cleared for use.
The materials submitted by defendants show that a large number of manufacturers, in excess of 100, have marketed corticosteroids at one time or another during the 25 year span. The additional submissions include a bulky item of reproductions of pages of a trade publication, as well as a printout from the FDA of manufacturers who ...