On appeal from Superior Court, Law Division, Morris County.
Lora, Antell and Pressler. The opinion of the court was delivered by Antell, J.A.D.
Plaintiff Aetna Insurance Co. (Aetna) appeals from the trial court's decision in this declaratory judgment action that Aetna must afford defendant Alvin Weiss a defense and coverage under a homeowner's insurance policy issued by Aetna to defendant against liability on the part of defendant's deceased daughter (also an insured) for personal injury to a passenger caused by deceased's operation of a moped which was involved in an accident with a truck. Aetna here argues, as it did in the trial court, that it is free of obligation to defendant by reason of the exclusion from coverage expressed in the policy for bodily injury arising out of the operation or use of "any motor vehicle owned or operated by or rented or loaned to any insured." The trial judge concluded that the moped is not a motor vehicle within the meaning of the policy and ordered Aetna to defend the personal injury action and to provide coverage against liability. Defendant-cross-appellant St. Paul Insurance Company which issued its excess coverage policy to Weiss agrees that its obligations are governed by the construction to be accorded the Aetna policy.
"Motor vehicle" is defined by the policy only as "a land motor vehicle." Excluded from this definition is a "recreational motor vehicle." The term "recreational motor vehicle" is defined as
(1) A golf cart or snowmobile or (2) if not subject to motor vehicle registration, any other land motor vehicle designed for recreational off-road use.
It is apparent that the policy definition of "motor vehicle" is unserviceable since it fails to specify the meaning of "motor vehicle."
The moped operated by defendant's decedent is essentially a bicycle in form, which can be operated either by muscular force exerted on its pedals, or by a small motor, or both in combination.
Its wheels are 17 inches in diameter and its 49.9 cubic centimeter motor, rated at 1.5 horsepower, delivers less power than a lawnmower engine. It can be operated at a maximum speed of 25 miles an hour. These specifications conform to those of a "motorized bicycle" which was defined at the time of the accident, and still is, under N.J.S.A. 39:1-1 as
A pedal bicycle having a helper motor characterized in that either the maximum piston displacement is less than 50 c.c. or said motor is rated at no more than 1.5 brake or horsepower and said bicycle is capable of a maximum of speed of no more than 25 miles per hour on a flat surface.
A motorized bicycle is expressly excluded from the definition of "motorcycle" and also from the definition of "motor vehicle," which includes
All vehicles propelled otherwise than by muscular power excepting such vehicles as run only upon rails or tracks and motorized bicycles. [Emphasis supplied].
In concluding, as we do, that the moped operated by defendant's decedent on the day of the accident was not a motor vehicle within the meaning of the policy exclusion, we do not overlook Laino v. Nationwide Mut. Fire Ins. Co. , 169 N.J. Super. 65 (App.Div.1979). There, in a similar case and under materially comparable policy language, the court concluded that a "minibike" was a motor vehicle for purposes of the policy exclusion. Although no physical description of the vehicle is furnished in that opinion, the language thereof leaves no doubt that the court distinguished it from a "motorized bicycle," and ...