devoted to the propagation of SCI/TM exist. The structure of the "international level" is changing and the relationship between the international and national organizations is nebulous.
The organizations, primarily under the auspices of the WPECs throughout the world, are implementing a "World Plan" which "is in progress to train one teacher of the Science of Creative Intelligence for every one thousand people in all parts of the globe." Fundamentals of Progress, Exhibit A attached to Jarvis Affidavit, at 2. The "World Plan" has seven stated goals:
(1) To develop the full potential of the individual;
(2) To improve governmental achievements;
(3) To realize the highest ideal of education;
(4) To eliminate the age-old problem of crime and all behavior that brings unhappiness to the family of man;
(5) To maximize the intelligent use of the environment;
(6) To bring fulfillment to the economic aspirations of individuals and society;
(7) To achieve the spiritual goals of mankind in this generation.
Id. The named organizational defendants presumably are entrusted with implementing the "World Plan" within the United States. The individual defendants are officers of these corporations, a person who taught the SCI/TM course in New Jersey high schools, and Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the principal deviser of the Science of Creative Intelligence and primary exponent of Transcendental Meditation.
The five boards of education which arranged for the teaching of the SCI/TM course at high schools within their jurisdictions also are named as defendants. The New Jersey Department of Education and the New Jersey Board of Education, as well as the Commissioner of Education, an individual employee of the Department of Education, and the State of New Jersey itself are sued. In addition, the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare and the United States are named as defendants.
Plaintiffs base their motion for partial summary judgment on the textbook used in the New Jersey high schools, a ceremony at which attendance by the student is mandatory, the deposition testimony of the president of the WPEC-US, the deposition testimony of two people who taught the SCI/TM course in four of the five high schools at which the course was offered, and a one-page affidavit of a clergyman.
In opposing the motion for partial summary judgment, defendants rely on the same deposition testimony relied upon by plaintiffs and the deposition testimony of three clergymen-practitioners of the TM technique and the deposition testimony of an employee of the United States Office of Education. In addition, defendants rely on affidavits of the president of the WPEC-US, of two teachers of the SCI/TM course in New Jersey high schools, of a linguist, of two professors of religion, and of eleven New Jersey high school students who were enrolled in the SCI/TM course.
Transcendental Meditation, briefly stated, is a technique of meditation in which the meditator contemplates a meaningless sound. Defendants have placed in the record the result of tests which purport to show that a meditator undergoes certain physiological changes during meditation. Other tests purport to show that practitioners of the technique will develop permanent changes in their physiologies, e.g., lowered heart rate and lowered breathing rate.
The "Science of Creative Intelligence" is a theory, devised or promulgated primarily by defendant Yogi, which purports to explain what occurs within a meditator's mind during meditation and to describe an entity or concept which defendants call "creative intelligence." The "Science of Creative Intelligence" posits that during transcendental meditation a meditator reverses the process through which thought develops until the meditator's mind reaches the entity, or "field of life," called "the field of pure creative intelligence," which is at the source of thought, according to the World Plan defendants. The textbook used in the New Jersey high schools states the above, but devotes most of its pages to a description of the nature and qualities of the entity called "creative intelligence."
As stated above, the SCI/TM course was offered as an elective course at five high schools in New Jersey during the 1975-76 academic year. The students at all five high schools used the same textbook and received their mantras,
or sound aids, at identical ceremonies. The SCI/TM course was taught four or five days a week by teachers trained by the World Plan defendants. The teachers were paid by the WPEC-US and were not employed by any of the five defendant school boards nor certified by the State Board of Examiners.
Aaron Deposition at 621. The SCI/TM course was the only course taught by the SCI/TM teachers.
The undisputed material facts upon which plaintiffs rely and from which plaintiffs assert that the only conclusion possible is that teaching of the SCI/TM course violates the establishment of religion clauses of both the United States and New Jersey constitutions are the textbook and the puja
used in the course.
The "Science of Creative Intelligence" as a course of study had its genesis in 1972 when "Maharishi, in conjunction with experts in education and science, developed a structure of teaching which was labeled the Science of Creative Intelligence." Jarvis Deposition at 913. As stated above, the "Science of Creative Intelligence" posits that during the practice of Transcendental Meditation the meditator's mind moves from a conscious thought to the source of thought, where the mind comes in contact with the unmanifest and unbounded field of pure creative intelligence, T at 29,
which is present, among other places, within every human being. T at 26. Defendants state that attainment of contact with the field of pure creative intelligence places the meditator in a "fourth state of consciousness" known as "restful alertness" or "transcendental consciousness." T at 30. The textbook states that during TM the meditator experiences the field of pure creative intelligence directly. T at 29. Contact with the field of pure creative intelligence infuses the meditator's mind both with creativity, T at 26, and with "all the qualities of creative intelligence," T at 38, clarifies and strengthens the meditator's thoughts, T at 32, expands the meditator's perceptions, T at 30, and "refines" the meditator's nervous system, Jarvis Deposition at 866a. Regular practice of TM will "refine" the meditator's nervous system further so that the expanded perceptions experienced during TM will carry over into the meditator's conscious thoughts and activities. T at 38, 86. Regular practice of TM may lead the meditator to the situation in which the meditator's mind is infused with the "expanded awareness" and perceptions that he experiences while meditating during waking, sleeping, and dreaming; this state is called "cosmic consciousness," or "the fifth state of consciousness." T at 86. See Jarvis Deposition at 866b.
The textbook states that "[the] field of pure creative intelligence is the home of all qualities that constitute the universe," T at 292; "all the qualities of which we can conceive are present in the unmanifest field of pure creative intelligence." T at 40. The field of pure creative intelligence also is the source of thought. T at 26, and "a field of unlimited energy, intelligence and happiness." T at 56. The field of pure creative intelligence also is "unbounded." T at 24, and "an inexhaustible reservoir of energy and intelligence, the fountainhead of all currents of creative intelligence." T at 26. The textbook defines "creative intelligence" as "that impelling force which continually gives rise to new expressions of life and order, progressive and evolutionary in nature." T at 20. Thus creative intelligence is a force which springs from the field of pure creative intelligence, e.g., T at 26, which is the source of everything in the universe, e.g., T at 26, 40, 260.
Creative intelligence, like the unbounded field of pure creative intelligence, possesses all the qualities that can be conceived of: "Every quality that is ever expressed in creation is the expression of creative intelligence." T at 40. The textbook specifically lists and discusses fifty "qualities of creative intelligence." "The qualities of creative intelligence can be seen as currents of consciousness arising from the field of pure consciousness, the field of pure creative intelligence." T at 40. The unbounded field of pure creative intelligence is unmanifest and silent. E.g., T at 29, 40. Creative intelligence ranges from the unmanifest field of pure creative intelligence to its manifestations in the universe. T at 22. Manifestations of creative intelligence include everything. "From the individual to the universe, all that we see is the display of creative intelligence." T at 240. The textbook devotes 225 pages to the discussion of fifty specific "qualities of creative intelligence." The textbook states that "[when] the conscious mind reaches the field of pure creative intelligence, it becomes saturated with all qualities of creative intelligence . . . ." T at 38. The fifty qualities of creative intelligence which are discussed in the textbook are progress, evolution, purposefulness, intelligence, order, beauty, precision, truth, dynamism, rest, stability, adaptability, gentleness, strength, efficiency, kindness, independence, helpfulness, vigilance, resourcefulness, spontaneity, analysis, synthesis, decisiveness, sweetness, universality, harmony, diversity, joy or happiness, life or liveliness, insight, foresight, thoughtfulness, specificity, expansiveness, courage, generosity, economy, love, justice, cleanliness, purity, freedom, responsibility, creativity, eternity, practicality, success, holism, and fulfillment. The textbook states that during meditation, the meditator's mind
becomes saturated with all qualities of creative intelligence, and then, in whatever area of living these qualities are needed, they express themselves more. That is why when a man meditates, he becomes more efficient in every field of thinking and decision-making, more capable in any undertaking he may choose. Wherever he puts his attention, he begins to display more expressed values of creative intelligence.