Sullivan, Foley and Leonard. The opinion of the court was delivered by Sullivan, S.j.a.d.
Defendant was convicted in the Bergen County District Court of driving while under the influence of intoxicating liquor, a violation of N.J.S.A. 39:4-50(a). As a second offender under the statute he was sentenced to three months in jail and his driver's license was revoked for a period of ten years. On appeal to the Bergen County Court, on a trial de novo on the transcript, defendant was again found guilty and the same sentence was imposed. This is an appeal from the latter judgment of conviction.
Defendant was arrested on December 17, 1966 at approximately 3:30 A.M. on the Garden State Parkway. A state trooper on patrol observed defendant driving north at approximately 35 miles an hour in a 60-mile zone, cutting sharply back and forth across the center line of the two north-bound lanes and obstructing the flow of traffic that was trying to pass him northbound. The trooper had defendant pull to the side of the road. He then went over to defendant's car and asked to see his license and registration. Defendant fumbled through his wallet but was unable to find them. The trooper noticed that defendant's face was flushed, his speech slurred, and his eyes glassy. He also noticed a distinct odor of alcohol on the defendant's breath. Defendant was placed under arrest and brought back to headquarters in the police car. In getting out of the car and entering the police station defendant appeared to be unsteady on his feet and was assisted by the trooper, who later testified that as a result of his observations of defendant he thought defendant was under the influence of alcohol.
At the station defendant was asked to submit to a breathalyzer test. He was advised that no test would be taken forcibly and against physical resistance, but that if he refused, it might result in the loss of his driving privileges. Defendant said he would take the test, and in connection therewith, and in answer to questions propounded to him, stated that he had had five or six drinks in an establishment in East Orange which he was unable to name. He said that he had had his first drink at 1 A.M. and his last drink at approximately 3:30 A.M. The drunkometer reading showed defendant to have .204% by weight of alcohol in his blood.
The foregoing evidence, which was used at the trial, falls into three separate categories: (1) the observations of the police officer concerning defendant's physical appearance and actions, and his opinion as to defendant's condition; (2) defendant's admissions and statements made while in custody, and (3) the breathalyzer test and reading.
Defendant did not challenge the admissibility of the evidence in the first category, namely, the testimony by the police officer as to defendant's physical appearance and actions, and his opinion as to defendant's condition. However, with regard to the second and third categories defendant urged at his trial and argues on appeal that this evidence was inadmissible because it was obtained from him while he was in custody and without any admonition being given him that:
(1) he had the right to remain silent,
(2) anything he said could be used against him in a court of law,
(3) he had the right to the presence of an attorney, and
(4) if he could not afford an attorney one would be appointed for him prior to any questioning, if he so desired, as required by Miranda v. State of Arizona, 384 U.S. 436, 86 S. Ct. 1602, 16 L. Ed. 2 d 694 (1966).
Both courts below held that the Miranda rule did not extend to a proceeding under the Motor Vehicle Act and refused to ...