The sole question to be decided in this case is whether or not N.J.S. 2 A:102-10 creates a civil remedy available to the plaintiffs.
Plaintiffs brought an action against defendants for damages arising from a breach of contract. On or about August 24, 1954 a corporation known as Schaedel and Brother Company, a corporation of New Jersey, of which corporation the individual defendants were officers and directors, had a general contract with U.S. Radiator Corporation to furnish certain repair work on their building in Harrison, New Jersey.
Schaedel and Brother Company, the corporation, entered into a written contract with plaintiff as sub-contractor to install a roof on the building. Plaintiff claims to have completed its contract with the Schaedel and Brother Company, and claims that the U.S. Radiator Corporation paid Schaedel and Brother Company on the general contract.
The Schaedel and Brother Company has been adjudicated a bankrupt. The plaintiffs have not been paid for the work done as sub-contractor. Complaint was amended to show these facts and plaintiffs contend that they have a right of action under N.J.S. 2 A:102-10.
This statute creates a criminal offense where a contractor pays out moneys received by him on a building contract in those instances where his sub-contractors have not been paid. Additionally, and more important for the purposes of this case, the statute uses the term "trust fund." The statute provides as follows:
"2 A:102-10. Misappropriation of funds paid to contractor for building purposes.
All moneys received by a contractor from the owner or mortgagee of real estate or any leasehold or other interest therein, for the
purpose of having a building erected, constructed, completed, altered, repaired or added to, are trust funds in the hands of the contractor to be applied to the amount of all claims due or to become due and owing from the contractor to all persons furnishing labor or materials to him for the erection, construction or completion of the building or any alteration, repair or addition thereto, and any other reasonable and necessary charge in connection therewith. Any contractor or any officer, director or agent of the contractor, who pays or consents to the appropriation of such funds for any other purpose prior to the payment of all claims and charges for the payment of which the funds constitute a trust fund, is guilty of a misdemeanor."
Plaintiffs here urge that the use of the term "trust fund" in this criminal statute creates a right inuring to his benefit whereby he can now proceed against the defendants in a civil action to recover the monies allegedly held in trust and wrongfully paid out prior to the satisfaction of his claim as sub-contractor against the defendant-contractor.
I do not agree with plaintiffs' contention, and accordingly find that no civil remedy was created by force of the criminal statute. In reaching this conclusion, I find support in the case of Wasserman, Inc., v. Klahre , 24 N.J. Super. 143, 147 (App. Div. 1952), wherein the following language was used by our Appellate Division:
"Under our former Constitution, as under our present one, the title of a statute operates as a limitation on the enacting clauses, so that a construction which would give the statute a direct effect beyond the object expressed in the title must be rejected * * *. It is entirely clear to us that the scope of the statutory provision on which the plaintiffs build their case, is limited to ...