Before GOODRICH and KALODNER, Circuit Judges, and MARSH, District Judge
Is a delinquency penalty assessed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue under Section 291 of the Internal Revenue Code*fn1 because of taxpayer's failure to file excessprofits tax returns as required by the Vinson Act*fn2 a "deficiency" under Section 271(a) of the Code,*fn3 rendering applicable the provisions of Section 272(a) of the Code?*fn4
That is the primary issue presented by the instant appeal by the United States of America, plaintiff below, from an order of the District Court denying its motion for summary judgment and granting the defendant-taxpayer's motion to dismiss the complaint.
The District Court ruled as a matter of law that a delinquency penalty is a "deficiency" and that Section 272(a) was applicable as a result, and found as a fact that the Commissioner had failed to give the taxpayer a statutory notice of deficiency and opportunity to be heard by the Tax Court as provided by Section 272(a). It also held that a decision of the Tax Court, affirmed by this Court in another proceeding which will be subsequently discussed, represented a "final determination" of the taxpayer's liability for the penalties involved in this appeal.
The facts may be summarized as follows:
The taxpayer, Erie Forge Company, is a Pennsylvania corporation engaged in the manufacture of steel forgings, ingots and castings. During the six fiscal years (ending April 30th) from 1935 to 1940, inclusive, the taxpayer completed certain contracts entered into by it with the Secretary of the Navy. Under the Vinson Act, it was required to file annual reports of profits made on those contracts. Insead of filing for each year within the time required by the Code, taxpayer waited until April 30, 1941, when, for the first time, it filed with the Collector of Internal Revenue at Pittsburgh the annual reports of profits for the entire six year period. After these reports were filed, the Commissioner assessed the excess profits liability of $307,321.19 shown by the returns, together with interest of $20,848.69. These amounts had been remitted along with the returns and are not now in controversy. Then, because the reports had not been filed until 1941, the Commissioner, on August 30, 1941, assessed a delinquency penalty of $68,517.63, measured by the amounts shown on the returns, as provided in Section 291. On September 9, 1941, notice on behalf of the United States was given the taxpayer of the assessment of the penalty and demand was made for payment.
No further action was taken by the Commissioner until March 31, 1943, when he issued a statutory notice of deficiency in tax for each of the years 1935 to 1940, inclusive, in the amount of $69,613.60 and, in the same notice, determined delinquency penalties thereon in the total amount of $17,245.22.*fn5 The statutory notice made no reference to the delinquency penalties (for failure to make timely reports) previously assessed on August 30, 1941, which are the subject of the instant litigation.
On June 29, 1943, the taxpayer filed a petition in the Tax Court to review the deficiency determination as stated in the March 31, 1943 statutory notice. In both its original and amended petitions the taxpayer claimed that the delinquency penalties of $68,517.63, here involved, had been erroneously assessed and were in controversy. The Commissioner first denied that the original delinquency penalties were in controversy in the Tax Court proceeding; but some six months after the testimony was closed, moved to amend his answer so as to include them. When his motion was denied on the ground that his claim had not been properly raised as required by statute and the rules of the Tax Court, and the latter refused to consider the question as to the original penalties, the Commissioner filed a petition for review by this Court. We affirmed, Commissioner v. Erie Forge Co., 3 Cir., 1948, 167 F.2d 71, at page 78, on the ground that there was "no clear cut mistake of law and no abuse of discretion on the part of the Tax Court." Parenthetically it may be noted that the Tax Court had sustained the Commissioner's determination as to the deficiencies in excess profits of $69,613.60 and the penalties thereon of $17,245.22.
It may be observed that during the pendency of the Tax Court proceedings the Commissioner, on July 21, 1944, made a second demand on the taxpayer for payment of the original delinquency penalties. No payment was ever made, with the result that the present suit was started for the collection of the penalties on August 21, 1947.
The rather detailed statement above has been made because of the taxpayer's contention, subscribed to by the District Court, that the Tax Court's decision was dispositive of the issue of the validity of the original delinquency penalty assessment.
As to this phase of the case, the record clearly establishes: (1) the Tax Court did not pass upon the issue as to the original delinquency penalties*fn6 and we so pointed out in footnote 4, page 73 of 167 F.2d in our opinion in Commissioner v. Erie Forge Co., supra; (2) we held in the latter case, 167 F.2d page 78, that "The Tax Court acted properly in not considering the Commissioner's claim to the additional penalties"; and (3) we did not there rule on the question as to whether the original delinquency penalties constituted "deficiencies", but determined only that the Tax Court had not abused its discretion in not allowing the Commissioner to assert them in the proceeding before it.
Further, the Commissioner is not estopped in this action under the principle that the first proceeding was res judicata as to all matters which were put in issue or could have been put in issue. This is because the Tax Court never assumed jurisdiction over these penalties. Section 272 (e) provides that "The (Tax Court) shall have jurisdiction * * * to determine whether any penalty, additional amount or addition to the tax should be assessed - if claim therefor is asserted by the Commissioner at or before the hearing or a rehearing." (Emphasis supplied.) Since the Tax Court refused to allow the Commissioner to assert a claim for these amounts it thereby precluded its decision from having any effect whatsoever as to them. This is not to say that the Tax Court never has jurisdiction to determine whether a delinquency penalty should be assessed. As the taxpayer points out, both this Court*fn7 and the Supreme Court*fn8 have recognized the jurisdiction of the Tax Court in such controversies; but we have been able to find no case which holds that a Tax Court decision can be res judicata as to penalties not in issue.
We come now to the primary issue involved - whether a delinquency penalty assessed for failure to file timely tax returns is a "deficiency" under Section 271 (a).A ruling on that issue is made necessary by reason of the fact that the District Court held that a delinquency penalty is a deficiency and dismissed the plaintiff's suit because the penalties here involved were asserted by ...