APPEALS FROM THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA
White, McKenna, Holmes, Day, Van Devanter, Pitney, McReynolds, Brandeis, Clarke
MR. JUSTICE McKENNA, after stating the case as above, delivered the opinion of the court.
The question in the case is, Has the Commission the jurisdiction exercised by the order? It is not denied that the Commission has power over the general equipment of a carrier, but it is denied that it has power to require "vehicles of a special type having no reference to the safety of transportation," and to this distinction the argument of counsel for the railroad company, is addressed.
The judgment of the District Court had somewhat broader basis. The court said: "The act to regulate commerce
does not confer upon the Interstate Commerce Commission all power over cars and other instrumentalities of shipment." And that, aside from special enactments, "Federal legislation regulating commerce, in so far at least as it is contained in the act of 1887 and its amendments, has thus far left carriers free to exercise their own judgment in the purchase, construction and equipment of their roads and in the selection of their rolling stock." Indicating that the law conferred upon the Commission the power to prevent and redress unfair practices and discriminations, the court further said: "We find nothing in the law which confers upon the Commission power to compel a carrier to acquire facilities it does not possess or to acquire better facilities than those it possesses, not with the object of preventing discrimination and preferences, but in order that the shipper may have larger, better, and perhaps more economical facilities."
And coming to consider the question of power conferred by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 as amended in 1906, the court decided that the amendment "added nothing to the original duty of the carrier as prescribed by the original act and as interpreted by the Commission, and vested in the Commission no increase of power over cars as instrumentalities of shipment."
To this proposition the United States and the Commission oppose the contentions that "it is the duty of every interstate carrier to provide and furnish upon reasonable request such cars as are reasonably necessary for handling the normal traffic of which it is a common carrier," and that the Commission is given jurisdiction to enforce the duty.
The power of the Commission has been given precedence and dominance in the argument, the extent of the duty of carriers coming in secondarily though important to be considered. In other words the main question presented
is, whatever be the duty of carriers as to the equipment they must have or furnish, whether the Interstate Commerce Commission is the tribunal to enforce the duty.
A comparison of the act as passed in 1887 with the amendment of 1906 becomes necessary and a consideration of the rulings under the former as an interpreter of the latter.
The Act of 1887 (24 Stat. 379) provided that --
"The term 'railroad' as used in this act shall include all bridges and ferries used or operated in connection with any railroad, and also all the road in use by any corporation operating a railroad, whether owned or operated under a contract, agreement, or lease; and the term 'transportation' shall include all instrumentalities of shipment or carriage."
The word "transportation" is the crucial word, and its definition in the amendment of 1906 is as follows:
". . . . and the term 'transportation' shall include cars and other vehicles and all instrumentalities and facilities of shipment or carriage, irrespective of ownership or of any contract, express or implied, for the use thereof and all services in connection with the receipt, delivery, elevation, and transfer in transit, ventilation, refrigeration or icing, storage, and handling of property transported; and it shall be the duty of every carrier subject to the provisions of this Act to provide and furnish such transportation upon reasonable request therefor . . ." And this, it is contended, must be read in connection with § 12, as amended March 2, 1889, as follows:
". . . and the Commission is hereby authorized and required to execute and enforce the provisions of this act." 25 Stat. 855, 858.
Section 1 of the Act of 1887 came before the Commission for consideration, and the duty thereunder of carriers to furnish tank cars for the transportation of petroleum, in
use in this business such kind and number of cars as the Commission may decide will constitute a proper and necessary equipment of car service. The duty of every such carrier is none the less obligatory at common law, and by its charter to furnish an adequate and proper car equipment for all the business of this character it undertakes and advertises in its tariffs it will do. The statute does not undertake to clothe the Interstate Commerce Commission with the power by summary proceeding of compelling a railroad company to perform all its common-law duties, but leaves many of these to be enforced in the courts by suits for damages and by other proceedings. . . .
"The power, if it should be held to exist at all, on the part of the Interstate Commerce Commission to require a carrier to furnish tank cars when that carrier is furnishing none whatever in its business, would apply equally to sleeping cars, parlor cars, fruit cars, refrigerator cars, and all manner of cars as occasion might require, and would be limited only by the necessities of interstate commerce and the discretion of the Interstate Commerce Commission. A power so extraordinary and so vital, reached by construction, could not justly rest upon any less foundation than that of direct expression or necessary implication, and we find neither of these in the statute."
And it was declared that the law-making power had not itself undertaken the responsibility or clothed the Commission with the responsibility of directing a carrier to supply itself with any particular kind of equipment or cars, or, in fact, any equipment or cars at all for the transportation of freight over its line. It will be observed, therefore, that all of the elements that entered into the problem of the power of the Commission and the reasons which seemed to impel its exercise were considered.
There was a repetition of the elements and decision In re Transportation, etc., of Fruit, 10 I.C.C. 360, 373 (1904). It was there said that the Commission was of opinion
that it was the duty of railroad companies to furnish refrigerator cars for the transportation of fruit; that at one time carriers might have declined to provide this special kind of equipment but that the trade had so grown that the carriers "might as well decline to provide stock cars for the transportation of live stock as refrigerator cars for the carriage of perishable commodities." It was, however, added, "But this duty does not spring from the Act to regulate commerce, nor has this Commission any jurisdiction of that matter. It arises out of the common-law liability of the defendant railway companies as common carriers, and redress for failure to fulfill it must be sought in the courts."
Certain abuses were pointed out in that case and the tendency of the ownership of cars by private car lines to monopoly, and as a consequence it was urged upon the Commission that carriers should not be permitted to make exclusive contracts with private car lines like those then under consideration but should be compelled to provide their own equipment. The Commission replied, at page 377: "The facts before us call for no expression of opinion on that subject, and none is attempted."
This, then, was the view of the Interstate Commerce Commission of the duty of carriers and of its power over them; that is, that it was the duty of carriers to provide and furnish equipment for transportation of commodities and that this duty might expand with time and conditions, the special car becoming the common car, and the shipper's right to demand it receiving the sanction of law. But the Commission decided it was the sanction of the common law, not of the statute, and that the remedy was in the courts, not in the Commission. With this view we start as the first element of our decision.
But a change in the statute and remedy is asserted, a change, it is further asserted, consequent upon a demand for a greater ...