ERROR TO THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA.
MR. JUSTICE WHITE, after stating the case, delivered the opinion of the court.
Before discussing the merits, we will briefly consider and dispose of a suggestion that no Federal question appears by the record to have been properly raised below, and, therefore, there is a want of jurisdiction in this court to review the judgment. The answer averred that if any stock of the savings bank appeared to have been issued to the national banks, it was "issued without authority of this corporation defendant, and without authority of law." In view of the fact that the defendant was a national bank, deriving its powers from the statutes of the United States, the averment that a particular transaction of the character of the one in question, if entered into, was without authority of law, can, in reason, be construed only to relate to the law controlling and governing the conduct
of the corporation, that is, the law of the United States. But if there were ambiguity on this subject, it is entirely removed by the grounds which were presented on the motion for a new trial and the specifications of error which formed the basis of the appeal which was taken to the Supreme Court of the State of California, for in both the motion and specifications the want of power under the laws of the United States was clearly asserted. The Supreme Court of the State interpreted the case brought to it from the court below as presenting the question of the power of the corporation under the law of the United States to become a stockholder in a savings bank, for in the opening sentence of its opinion it said:
"The California National Bank, one of the defendants, has appealed upon the ground that, by virtue of the statutes under which it is organized, it had no power to become a stockholder in another corporation, and that its act in becoming such stockholder is so far ultra vires that it cannot be made liable for any portion of the indebtedness of the corporation."
The suggestion as to the want of jurisdiction is, therefore, without merit.
The Federal questions which therefore arise on the record may be thus stated: 1st, do the statutes of the United States, Rev. Stat. § 5136 et seq., relating to the organization and powers of national banks, prohibit them from purchasing or subscribing to the stock of another corporation? and, 2d, if a national bank does not possess such power, can the want of authority be urged by the bank to defeat an attempt to enforce against it the liability of a stockholder?
As to the first question. -- It is settled that the United States statutes relative to national banks constitute the measure of the authority of such corporations, and that they cannot rightfully exercise any powers except those expressly granted, or which are incidental to carrying on the business for which they are established. Logan County Bank v. Townsend, 139 U.S. 67, 73. No express power to acquire the stock of another corporation is conferred upon a national bank, but it has been held that, as incidental to the power to loan money on personal security, a bank may in the usual course of doing
such business accept stock of another corporation as collateral, and by the enforcement of its rights as pledgee it may become the owner of the collateral and be subject to liability as other stockholders. National Bank v. Case, 99 U.S. 628. So, also, a national bank may be conceded to possess the incidental power of accepting in good faith stock of another corporation as security for a previous indebtedness. It is clear, however, that a national bank does not possess the power to deal in stocks. The prohibition is implied from the failure to grant the power. First National Bank v. National Exchange Bank, 92 U.S. 122, 128.
On behalf of the plaintiff below it was admitted at the trial that the stock of the savings bank was not "taken as security or anything of the kind," and it is not disputed in the argument at bar that the transaction by which this stock was placed in the name of the bank was one not in the course of the business of banking for which the bank was organized.
2. The transfer of the stock in question to the bank being unauthorized by law, does the fact that, under some circumstances, the bank might have legally acquired stock in the corporation estop the ...